Izityalo Zokutya Kwemveli eMzantsi Afrika

© Shem Compion
Ukujongisiswa kokutya okwenziwe ngezityalo okuthengiswayo kwizwe lonke jikelele kubonakalise okokuba iAfrika ibenegalelo ngee ntlobo eziyi 119. Eli nani ke liqathaniswa kakuhle nenani elingama 126 we Europe, 68 ye Central America and 97 ye South America. Kulama 119 wezityalo zase Afrika ezithengiswayo, ishumi elinesithandathu zintyatyambo zemveli ezisuka eMazantsi we Afrika: zezi ke gum Arabic (acacia gum), baobab, buchu, waterblommetjie, rooibos tea, amakhiwane amuncu (sour figs), jelly lemon, (Cucumis metuliferus), honey bush tea, finger millet, palm wine (Hyphaene coriacea), pearl millet, Livingstone, okanye African Potato, marula, sorghum, Bambara groundnut kunye ne cowpea.
Ukutya okwenziwe ngezityalo zemveli kwase Mzantsi Afrika kubhekisa kwizivuno ezinengcambu zala pha eMzantsi Afrika, kungokufanayo nezivuno ezathi zaziswa kweli lizwe ngoku sezibonwa njengezalapha eMzantsi Afrika. Ezizivuno ziveliswa, zifumaneke kwilizwe phantsi kwemeko zezulu ezahlukileyo, ubuninzi bazo zifumaneka endle.
Izivuno zezityalo zemveli zahlulwe kathathu/ingqolowa, imifuno, neziqhamo. uMzantsi Afrika ujonge kakhulu kwimveliso zemveli ezikukutya, kodwa ke ilizwe lonke sele liqalisile ukubano mbulelo ngoku. Kei apple (Dovyalis caffra) ilinywe eCalifornia, jelly melons (Cucumis metuliferus) ziveliselwa ukuthengiswa eFrance, Israel, California, kunye nase New Zealand apho yaziwa khona njenge kiwano.

Isivuno Sengqolowa ye Mveli

Isivuno sengqolowa yemveli yimbewu ezityebileyo kwi ngqolowa, ezinayo ne protein, ezikulungeleyo ukutyiwa. Ezizityalo zihlulwe ngokwe papa nembotyi ezithile.
Ipapa: Pearl millet, grain sorghum.
Pulses: cowpea, Bambara ground nut, mungbean, marama bean (imbewu).

Isivuno Semifuno ye Mveli

Isivuno semifuno yemveli zizityalo apho amagqabi asemancinci, isiqu somthi, nengcambu zithi zivunwe zisetyenziswe ekwenzeni ukutya. Esisivuno sehlulwe ngengcambu, ingcambu ezinabileyo, nemifuno enamagqabi.
Amagqabi: cleome, cowpea, amaranth, blackjack, Jew’s mallow.
Iingcambu: cassava, amadumbe, marama bean (tuber).

Isivuno Seziqhamo ze Mveli

Isivuno seziqhamo zifumaneka zimnandi zityeka zi krwada. Imizekelo yeziqhamo yi marula, sourplum, monkey orange, namakhiwane amuncu (sour fig). ngaphandle kwezakha mzimba ezikwizinga eliphezulu, iziqhamo ezilinyiweyo zinenye into elungileyo: ziyavelisa nokuba izityalo ekuxhomekekwe kuzo ziyohlulakala (umzekelo: ngexesha lembalela), kwaye zingawuvala ‘umsantsa wendlala’ ngexesha ukutya xa kungonelanga.

Iindawo Ezinkulu Zemveliso eMzantsi Afrika

Amaranth, black jack, cleome ne Jew’s mallow zisetyenziswa kakhulu emakhaya, kwaye zivunwa endle.
iBambara groundnut, cowpea zikhula eMpumalanga, North West, Gauteng, Kwazulu Natal, nakwi phondo lase Limpopo.
Cleome, Jews mallow, amarathus zifumneka eMpumalanga, Kwazulu Natal, North West, nakwi phondo lase Gauteng.
iMarula, sourplum, wild gum, zikhula eMpumalanga, Kwazulu Natal, Limpopo, nakwi phondo lase Mpuma Koloni.

Imisebenzi ye Sivuno Sokutya Okulinyiweyo

Ukutya okulinyiweyo/kwemveli kutyiwa kubiliswe, komisiwe, ngamanye amaxesha zirostiwe izityalo kwaye zisetyenziswa ukuncasanisa nakwi suphu.
Izithole ezingakhulanga, ziyomiswa zibiliswe, logama iimbewu ezingakhulanga zigutywa ukwenza umgubo we flawa. Izikhondo zisetyenziswa endaweni yokutya kukutya okunomsantsa okufana nerice no milimili. Iziqhamo zityiwa xa zivuthiwe okanye zomiswe okanye ingama ndongomane kwaye zingenziwa ijam, jeli nesiselo ijusi.

Ubumnandi Bokulima Isivuno Semveli

Kuncinci okufunekayo - zisebenzisa amanzi amancinci, kune sivuno zase ‘mazantsi’.
Zine zinongo eziphezulu - zingongeza izakha mzimba kukutya okwenziwe ngengqolowa.
Okumelana nembalela, inkumbi edlayo nezifo.

Translated by Zikhona Plaatjie