Umlando Kadr Peter Magubane

Udr Peter Magubane, intatheli edume umhlaba wonke jikelele, wazalwa ziyi-18 kuMasingana we-1932 eVrededorp wase ekhuliswa eSophiatown. Wathola ugqozi lokuthwebula izithombe kuyise, umthengisi wezithelo, owamthengela ikhamera iKodak Brownie esengumfana wesikole. Umsebenzi wakhe wokuthwebul’izithombe waqala ngesikhathi somzabalazo wentando yeningi eNingizimu Afrika.

Umsebenzi wokuthwebula kaDr Peter Magubane waqala ngo-1955 emva kokuzibandakanya nephephabhuku iDrum njengomshayeli nesigijimi. Ngokushesha wathola umsebenzi wokuba ngumsizi kaJurgen Schadeberg egumbini lokugeza izithombi. Umsebenzi wakhe omkhulu wokuqala kwaba ukuthwebula ingqungquthela ye-African National Congress.

Wasebenzisa ikhamera yakhe ukuthatha izithombe zempilo nomzabalazo wabansundu baseNingizimu Afrika ngenkathi yobandlululo. Lezi zithombe zafinyelela kwabezindaba zomhlaba zibakhombisa ububi obabenzeka eNingizimu Afrika ngaleso sikhathi. Lena yindaba yendoda enkulu eyakhahlamezeka ngokuthi ezinye izithombe zayo azange zifinyelele kwabezindaba zomhlaba ngenxa yokuthi iphoyisa lamkhiphisa ifilimu ekhamereni layishayisa ngomoya ukuze yoneke futhi kuyiqiniso ukuthi lona lelo phoyisa lamphula ikhala.

UPeter wayeqopha umlando ngekhemera yakhe mayelana nombhiyozo ophikisana noMthetho Wamapasi, ukufufusa koMkhonto weSizwe, ukuboshwa kukaNelson Mandela, Ukuthethwa Kwecala LaseRivonia, ukudingiswa kwe-ANC, izibhelu zaseSharpeville, ukufufusa kweBlack Consciousness Movement kaSteve Biko, nodweshu lwabafundi baseSowetho. Ezibhelwini zaseSowetho watshel’abafundi ababebhiyoza ukuthi: “Umzabalazo ongaqoshiwe njengomlando awumzabalazo walutho”. Njengomphumela wokuzibandakanya kwakhe ezibhelwini zaseSowetho, indlu yakhe yacekelwa phansi ngomlilo waboshwa nezinye izintatheli ezimnyama izinsuku ezingu-123.

Isicelo sakhe sokuthi angene kwiPhotographic Society of South Africa yabamhlophe bodwa sanqatshwa. Abathwebuli beDrum base besungula iProgressive Photographic Society engabandlululi ngokwebala ngo-1961. UDr Magubane wabangumthwebuli wokuqala onsundu eNingizimu Afrika ukuba nombukiso wakhe wezithombe.

Abaqhashi bakhe eRand Daily Mail bamakhela igumbi lakhe lokugeza izithombe. Imithetho yeNingizimu Afrika yangaleso sikhathi yayingamvumeli ukuthi asebenzise igumbi lokugeza izithombe elilodwa nozokwabo babelungu. Wabangumthwebuli wokuqala onsundu ephepheni ayeqhashwe kulo, kusukela ngo-1967 kuya ku-1980. Lokhu kumbandakanya nomyalelo wokuvalwa kwakhe umlomo iminyaka emihlanu kuze kube u-1975. Ngalesi sikhathi wavalelwa ekhulukuthu izinsuku eziwu-98 futhi waboshwa izinyanga eziyisithupha.

UDr Magubane uhlukunyeziwe, washaywa, wadutshulwa amanxeba ngohlwayi, waphekwa ngemibuzo, wacogiswa futhi waboshwa isikhathi eside. Wadutshulwa izikhathi eziyishumi nesikhombisa emngcwabeni womfundi eNatalspruit. Waboshwa izinsuku eziwu-586 ekhulukuthu ngo-1969.

Wayeyifihlela amaphoyisa ikhamera yakhe. Wayeyifihla ekhaveni yebhayibheli elikhishwe ingaphakathi, ejakhethini, ekhathonini lobisi noma kuhhafu wesinkwa. Wayenza sengathi udla isinkwa ebe ethatha izithombe.

Wachitha isikhathji esithile eLondon ekuqaleni ko-1960 futhi wasebenzela iphephabhuku iTime phakathi kuka-1978 no-1980. Wachitha nesikhathi eNew York kusukela ngo-1980. Futhi wasebenzela amabhuku namaphephandaba anjengoNational Geographic, Life, New York Times, Washington Post, Paris Match neSport Illustrated. NeNhlangano Yezizwe iye yaba ngelinye ikhasimende lakhe.

Ukuzibandakanya kwakhe noNelson noWinnie Mandela, ngokomsebenzi nangobungani, kwaqala ngabo-1950. Wabangumthwebuli kaMadiba osemthethweni kusukela ngenkathi ekhululwa kuze kubeseminyakeni yokuqala yobuMengameli. UDr Magubane uthwebule insambatheka yodweshu lobuzwe nomhlaba emva kwenguquko yentando yeningi eNingizimu Afrika.

UDr Magubane uthi umklomelo omkhulu wakhe yiSouth African Order of Meritorious Service Silver Class II, ayinikwa uMengameli uNelson Mandela. Uye waziwa izikhathi eziningi ngokubeka ikhamera yakhe eceleni ukuze avimbe abantu ukuthi bangabulawa. Ngenxa yalokhu waklonyeliswa i-American National Professional Photographers Association Humanistic Award. Wabangowokuqala onsundu ukuhlabana ngeSithombe Sezindaba Sonyaka ngo-1958. Uneziqu eziyishagalolunye zobudokotela aklonyeliswe ngazo futhi uye waklonyeliswa iCornel Cappa Lifetime Achievement Award yi-International Center of Photography eNew York. Eminye imiklomelo anayo, yiRobert Capa Award, iSpecial Missouri Honor Medal for Distinguished Service in Journalism, iMartin Luther King Luthuli Award, iLifetime Achievement Award yeMother Jones Foundation and Leica Cameras, noBulunga beTom Hopkinson School of Journalism and Cultural Studies e-University of Wales. Imiklomelo yokuqala kwelakubo imbandakanya eyobungcweti kwezobuntatheli ayiphiwa yiWalter Cronkite ixhaswe yiStellenbosch Farmers’ Winery.

UDr Magubane usebukise kwaze kwaba kabili ngezithombe eziyikhulu athi ngezivelele zikaNelson Mandela: kube kanye embuthanweni weNhlangano Yezizwe ePoland, lapho umbukiso wavulwa uMengameli uLech Walesa wasePoland. Umbukiso wesibili uhlelwe ukuthi ube ngezi-1 July kuya ku-30 September 2018 eNelson Mandela Gateway, esangweni lokuya eRobben Island. Lezi zithombe zaphiwa iNelson Mandela Foundation nguDr Peter Magubane.