Izitshabalalisi Zemidiliya

© Prof Piet Goussard Winetech
Mealy bug damage in Chardonnay. Note the damage on leaves.

Isishwankathelo

Ezona zitshabalalisi zonakalisayo kwimidiliya ye wayini ziintwala zemidiliya, ibhungane elinomboko kunye nee mbovane. Ezi zitshabalalisi zikwanabo nobuhlobo obusondeleneyo kuba ulawulo lwe khemikhali lwenye lungabulala iintshaba zendalo zenye. Ezi zitshabalalisi kufuneka ke zilawulwe zonke ngaxesha nye.

Zininzi izitshabalalisi ezinokubakho kwintsimbi yediliya kwaye ezi zinambuzane zilandelayo zingaba yingxaki maxa wambi:

Umbungu otyheli
Umbungu wee ngcambu
Iiperile
Iintwala zemidiliya
Iimbovane
Amabhungane anomboko
Isinambuzane esitya imidumba
Isinambuzane esitya imidiliya
Iinyekevu
Inyenzane

Umbungu Otyheli

Umbungu otyheli mcinane kwaye uhlala emhlabeni utya iingcambu zemithi yediliya. Ixhaphaka kakhulu ngo Septemba ukuya ku Meyi. Phantsi kwemeko ezithile, ingatya namagqabi kwaye ibonakala njenge qhubu phantsi kwegqabi. Ukugrumba nokuphanda iingcambu zemithi e ethe-ether yediliya kungaveza ezizinambuzane zityheli kwindawo ezonakeleyo zeengcambu. Umbungu otyheli ubakho kakhulu kwimihlaba emininzi kwaye imithe yediliya engafakelwanga ichaphazeleka lula sesi sitshabalalisi. Imithi engafakelwanga yimithi ekhula ngengcambu zayo. Eyona ndlela ixhaphakileyo yokulawula izitshabalalisi kukusebenzisa iingcambu ezomeleleyo ezifana ne Ramsey.

Umbungu wee Ngcambu

©Hans Hugo Winetech
Nematode damage on the root of a cover crop.
Imibungu yengcambu mincinane kakhulu ayinakubonakala ngamehlo enyama kwaye yonakalisa iingcambu zemithi yediliya. Eminye imibungu yediliya ihlala phakathi kwii ngcambu kwaye ingabangela ukuphithana kweengcambu. Logama eminye ihlala kuphela emhlabeni ihlasele ingcambu ngaphandle. Ulawulo lwe khemikhali lwe mibungu yeengcambu kufuneka lwenziwe kuphela emva kokuba uhlolo lomhlaba kunye neengcambu lwenziwe kwaye kufuneka lwenziwe ngendlela.

Ngokufanayo nombungu otyheli, iingcambu ezikwaziyo ukumelana nemibungu yee ngcambu. Izityalo ezithile zokukhusela ezifana ne African marigolds kunye ne oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus subsp. Oleiferus) ziyakwazi ukuthoba inani lemibungu yee ngcambu. Izitshabalalisi zemibungu yengcambu, inkoliso yazo zibayi tyhefu kwaye kufuneka ziphathwe ngononophelo kwaye zigadwe ngalo lonke ixesha.

Translated By Zizipho Silwana