Ukukhathalela Isigqumathelo

© Louise Brodie
Ukukhathalela isigqumathelo (canopy) yindlela apho imithana yemidilya namagqabi zilawulwa ngendlela apha ebangela imveliso esemgangathweni yendidi ezahlukeneyo ze wayini. Izizathu ze zokukhathalela izigqumathelo zezi:
Ukuqinisekisa ukuba kukho amagqabi asempilweni oneleyo.
Ukuqinisekisa ukuba lamagqabi avelile elangeni, kwaye akukho mthunzi mninzi phakathi kulemidiliya.
Ukuqinisekisa ukuba imithana engenamvelisa ayikhuli iyodlule imithi ethwala iziqhamo.
Ukunqanda ukukhula kwezityalo kwangethuba ngokuthi zikekeliswe okanye zicukaniswa ukuze konke ukutya namanzi aqale afike kwi bhantshi.
Ukuqinisekisa ukuba umoya ubhudlwa phakathi kwayo lemithana namagqabi, ukuze lamagwabi ome kwamsinya kwaye angafunyanwa zizifo zokungunda.
Ukuze amagqabi emidiliya akhule ngendlela, kungcono avele elangeni. Ukuba isagqumathelo sishinyene kakhulu ilanga lingena kancinici kumagqabi angaphakathi kwaye oku kwenza ethe-ethe umsebenzi wawo. Amagqabi atyheli ngaphakathi zimpawu zokungafumani langa laneleyo, kwaye oku kwehlisa umgangatho nemveliso yefama yomdiliya. Ukugcinwa ngendlela kwe sagqumathelo somdiliya kugcina imidiliya inencasa ukuze ivelise isivuno esihla yonke iminyaka.
Ukusukela ngo Novemba ukuya ku Disemba, ilanga libalulekile kwintshula zemidiliya kubalulekile ukuze kwakheke iintyatyambo zesivuno zonyaka olandelayo. Icanopy management eyaneleyo kuphuhlisa isimo sobushushu phakathi kumthi womdiliya. Umoya nokukhanya okwaneleyo kufuneka kubekhona njengoko umdiliya oshinyeneyo uhlala umanzi ithuba elide, kwaye oku kungabangela izifo zokungunda.

Iindlela Zokukhathalela Isigqumathelo (Canopy)

Ukuthenwa (head suckering) kukusuwa yonke imithana engafunekiyo kwimidiliya. Isenokuba yiyo yonke imithana engathwali midiliya, ukophula lamasebe eziqwini nakufuphi neengcabu okanye amagqatyana akhula phakathi kwamasee athwala iziqhamo. Ukususa amasebe ongezelekileyo kunceda ekungeneni komoya ngokwaneleyo, ilanga nalo lingene ngokwaneleyo. Oku kukwanceda imithana eseleyo ukuba ifumane nezinongo ezidingekayo.
Lamasebe, nathi asuswe avamise ukungathwali siqhamo kuba entshule kwimithi emidala kunonyaka omnye. Ngaphezulu, amasebe amaninzi kwisidiliya enza isagqumathelo esishinyeneyo, nto leyo inokubangela ukungathwali siqhamo. Ukuthenwa (head suckering) kuvamise ukwenziwa ngamanyathelo aliqela. Kanye emva kokuba amasetyana enobude obuzi 2cm-5cm. Lamasetyana asuswa kuba engafuneki kwaye esenokudumba. Okwesibini, onke amasetyana aphakathi kwalawo anokho ukuthwala isiqhamo ayasitshulwa ngaphandle kwalapho kufuneka kuveliswe amasebe anakho ukuthwala isiqhamo.
Okwesithathu oku kuthenwa kwenziwa xa amasebe esidiliya esinakho ukuthwala isiqhamo simalunga ne 15cm ubude. Ze kushiyeke amasebe amabini okanye amathathu kwisidiliya ngasinye. Lamasebe angafunekiyo kufanele abemafutshane xa esitshulwa ukuze angashiyi amanxeba amakhulu. Ukuthenwa kufuneka kwenziwa ekuqaleni kwethuba lolimo.
iTipping kukususwa kwencam ekhulayo (2-5 cm) kumasebe. Oku kwenziwa ngesandla ngexesha lonke lokulima. iTopping kukususwa kwamasebe abude buyi 15-25 cm kwimithana.
Kwizidiliya ezomeleleyo, nezichumayo ubude bamasebe angama 60cm angasikwa kwizidiliyaukuze kuvuleke umtyhi kwimiqolo phakathi kwezityalo. Kuvamiswe ukwenziwa oku ngobuxhakaxhaka bemitshini. Ukubuyiselwa kwamasebe kuxa abasebenzi betshova amasebe aphuma ngaphandle kwesigqumathelo bewaphindisela phakathi kwamacingo kwakhona ze bawatsale angene kwi trellis.
iDefoliation kuxa kususwa amagqabi ukuze kungene ukukhanya kwelanga ngokwaneleyo kwisigqumathelo esishinyeneyo. Ukukhanya okuninzi kuthetha ukuba zizophefumla kakuhle kwenzeke ne photosynthesis. EMzantsi Afrika imidiliya kufuneka ibesemva kwamagqabi angapakishananga kakhulu. Ukukhanya kwelanga okwaneleyo kwimithana namasebe kubalulekile ukuze kunyeke amathuba okuma isidiliya sibenakho ukuthwala isiqhamo. Isigqumathelo singena umoya owaneleyo xa amagqabi ephunguliwe. Kwaye oku kuqinisekisa ukuba izifo ziyalawuleka.
Amagqabi kungcono asuswe kwalisaxala ixesha lolimo, kanye emva kokudubula kwentyatyambo ukuba ukukhanya kwelanga kuyadingeka kwimidiliya. Oku kuqinisekisa ukusitheka okungcono kwamagqabi ngokuye kuhamba ixesha, kuye kufudumala. Le defoliation yenziwa kwii bhantshi. Apho ukugqatseka lilanga kungadala umonakalo, amagqabi kufuneka asuswe kuphela emacaleni apho ilanga likhanya ekuseni qha.
Ukulawula izityalo kukususa iibhantshi zemidiliya ukuze kukhuselwe ukusindeka kwamasebe amancinci okanye acekeceke. Oku kunqanda umbala otshabhileyo kwaye kunceda nokuphuhlisa umgangatho wamagaqa omdiliya. Ukuze kuveliswe imidiliya ekumgangatho ophezulu, maxa wambi kuyanyanzeleka zisusiwe iibhantshi ezibaxekileyo. Kodwa ke, uhlolo kufuneka lwenziwe ukuze kujongwe ukuba zingaphi iibhantshi ekufuneka zisikiwe. Amaxa amaninzi oku kudinga ukwenziwa kwimidiliya ye wayini ezibomvu.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana