Ilawulo Lomthunzi Ombesa Iintjalo Zamaderibe

© Louise Brodie
Lesi sisenzo salokho kulawulwa bekunakelelwe amatlhurhelo kanye namkari ngendlela egcina ipha imiphumela emihle kanye nekhwalithi ehle ukwenzela ukufumana imihlobo yamawayini ahlukahlukeneko. Iinzathu zokusebenzisa indlela le:

Ukuqinisekisa bonyana kuba nepilo ngokwaneleko emakarini.
Ukuqinisekisa bonyana amakari athola ilangana ngokwaneleko begodu nokuthi akunamthunzi omnengi ngaphasi komuthi.
Ukuqinisekisa bonyana akumili amatlhurhele angakanothi phezu kwalezo ezithelako.
Ukujamisa isimilo bonyana singasakhula kusesenesikhathi ngokuvimba iingcenye zesiphetho kanye nangaphezulu ukwenzela bonyana koke ukudla kanye namanzi athoma ngokuya eempakaneni zawo.
Ukuqinisekisa bonyana kubetha umoya hlangana namakari kanye namatlhurhelo ukwenzela bonyana amakari akghone ukoma kusesenesikhathi begodu angabanjwa malwele abizwa ngama-fungal diseases.
Ukuze amakari womutjhana akghone ukuphefumula kuhle, kuhle khulu ukuthi uwenze bonyana afunyane ukuhlatjwa lilanga. Nangabe ingubo ombesa ngayo ibanzi nofana idege khulu, kuzokungena umkhanyo omncani welanga emakarini angaphakathi begodu lokho kwenza umsebenzawo ubebuthakathaka. Ukuba namakari asarulana ngaphakathi kulitshwayo lokobanyana kungena ilanga elingakaneli begodu lokho kwephungula nekhwalithi yomkhiqizo wesimu.

Ukulawulwa ngokusebenzisa indlela yokutlhogomela le okuhle kwenza bonyana imitjhana ihlale ithela kuhle ukwenzela bonyana ikhiqize kuhle umkhiqizo qobe mnyaka. Ukusuka ngeNyanga kaSinyikhaba ukuya kuNobayeni ukuhlaba kwelanga phezu kwamatlurhelo kuqakatheke khulu ukwenzela ukubumba ibuthelelo lamathuthumbo lesivuno somnyaka olandelako. Ukuhlatjwa lilanga okwaneleko kanye nomoya kufuze kube khona ngaso soke isikhathi njengombana imithi eminyeneko ihlala imanzi begodu lokho kungaqubula amalwele abizwa ngama-fungal diseases.

IIndlela Zokulawula Umthunzi Ombesa Iintjalo Zamaderibe

Ukuphungulwa kweenhloko kukususa woke amatlhurhelo angafunekiko ukusuka ekilezo ze-canopy yenhlokwana zalezo ezihlangiweko kungenzeka bonyana ngiwo woke amatlhurhelo angakathwali amaderibe, ukuphadluka kwawo eziqwini kanye nesithomeni nofana amatlhurhelo avame ukutlhurha hlangana nezithelako. Ukususa amatlhurhelo adluleleko kukhuthaza ukubetha komoya, kuthuthukise ukuhlaba kwelanga ngaphaka kwe-canopy kanye nezakhamzimba ziyatholakala ematlhurhelweni asaleleko. Amatlhurhelo asuswako la, kanengi avamise ukungakanothi, njengombana akhula eengodweni ezidala ngomnyaka.

Ngale kwalokho, amatlhurhelo amanengi emthini owodwa akhiqiza i-canopy eminyeneko nengabanga ukungatheli. Ukuquntulwa kweenhlokokhu kanengi kwenziwa ngeendlela ezinengi. Ngemva kokutlhurha naselel amatlhurhelo amade ngamasenthimitha ama-2 – kama-5, ukuphungulwa kwawo kuyenziwa ukwenzela ukususa lawo avuvukileko nangafunekiko kanye namancani emthini. Kwesibili, woke amatlhurhelo ahlangana neengcenye ezithelako ayasuswa, ngaphandle kwalapho kumile khona ingcenye ethelako etjha. Indlela yesithathu yokuphungula yenziwa lokha amatlhurhelo asengcenyenei ethelako anobude obuyi-15cm.

Ukusuka lapho namatlhurhelo amabili ukuya kamathathu asalele engcenyeni ethelako. Lezo ezingafunekiko kufuze zibe zifitjhani lokha nazisuswako ukwenzela bonyana kungasali kunamanceba amakhulu lapho zisuswe khona. Isenzwesi kufuze senziwe ekuthomeni kwesikhtahi sonyaka. I-Tipping Kusisenzo sokususa iingcnenye zeempdenda (2 - 5 cm) ukusuka ematlhurhelweni. Lokhu kwenziwa ngesandla ngaso soke isikhathi. Topping Kusisenzo sokususa amatlhurhelo ali-15cm – 25cm. Esinimi enamandla, ethela ngamandla kungasuswa nama-60cm ukusuka ngaphambili kwamatlhurhelo ukwenzela bonyana kuvuleke amareyi wesimu. Kuvamise bonyana kwenziwe ngendlela thileko.

Ukubuselwa kwamatlhurhelo kulokha abasebenzi basunduzela amatlhurhelo amilele ngaphandle kwe-canopy hlangana neendrada bese bawadosela phezulu ukwenzela ukuwanzinzisa ngendlela esetjenziswe ukuwajamisa. Ukubulala amakari ngokusebenzisa amakhemikhali (defoaliation) kususa amakari ukwenzela ukuthuthukisa ukungenelela kwelanga hlangana ne-canopy begodu ukufumala ilanga elinengi kuhlathulula ukuphefumula kwawo. ESewula Afrika amaderibe kufuze abe ngemuva kwengutjana yinye yamakari. Ukuhlaba kwelanga okunengi esithomeni sawo kuqakathekile njengombana kukhuphula ukunotha kwawo.

I-canopy obetha umoya lokha nakususwe amakari begodu lokhu kuqinisekisa ukulawuleka okuhle kwamalwele. Amakari kufuze asuswe kusesenesikhathi ekuthomeni kwesikhathi sonyaka, ngemva kokukutlhurha nangabe kudingeka ilanga elinengi esitjalweni. Lokhu kuqinisekisa bonyana ubuhle bokumbeseka bamakari ngokukhamba kwesikhathi somnyaka nakuthoma ukufuthumala. Isenzwesi senziwa kwaphela ebuthelelweni leempakana. Lapho ukutjhiswa lilanga kungona, amakari kufuze asuswe ehlangothini lapho ilanga lihlabakhona naliphumako ekuseni.

Ukulawula iintjalo kukususa iimpakana zamaderibe ukwenzela ukuvimbela ukuthwala nzima kwamatlhurhelo abuthakathaka namatjha. Lokhu kukhandela ukungathuthuki kanye nokuba nekhwalithi ephasi yombala kwamamomori. Ukwenzela bonyana ukhiqize amaderibe wekhwalithi ephezulu, kesinye isikhathi kuyadingeka bonyana ususe iimpakana ezidluleleko. Nokho, kufuze kwenziwe ihlolo ukwenzela bonyana kubonakale kuzakususwa mangaki amabuthelelo. Lokhu kusebenza khulu emhlobeni wamaderibe abovu.

Translated by Johannes Nkosinathi