uDesmond Tutu: Ngubani Kanye Eliqhawe

Indoda Entsokothileyo

©Eric Miller
uDesmond Tutu uchazwa ngabaninzi njengendoda entsokothileyo nengagqibeki ncam. Abantu ababekhe badibana naye ngethuba efunda Engilani kwiminyaka yoo 1960 babemothuka indlela anobubele oku kanye kwabantu base Afrika ngayo aphinde angafihli, athethe phandle. Nakubo wakhawuleza ukuthandeka, isiphiwo sakhe asasigcine kuna namhla. Waziwa ngokuba ngumphefumlo okhawulezayo ukukhathazeka nonentshisakalo: into unkosikazi wakhe awayesoloko emnxwala ngayo. Ukwanenkathalo ngabanye yaye unenyani, into enqabileyo kubantu abaninzi. Kuthiwa uwuzeka kade umsindo, kwaye akasokuze akhathaze omnye umntu ngenjongo. uTutu waziwa ngokusebenza ngokuzimisea kwaye ukrelekrele kakhulu.

Indoda elinene, kwaye uyazidla ngokugcina amasiko nezithethe zase Afrika. Ubanika ingqwalasela abantu, uyaqiniseka ukuba uyabulisa, uyayikhumbula imihla ebalulekileyo (efana nemihla yokuzalwa), uyababulela abantu, ufika ngethuba kwaye akasokuse athathe nkxaxheba xa kuhletywa umntu. Ekusebenzeni kwakhe njengomfundisi, wayeqinisekisa ukuba uchitha ixesha kunye ze atyelele amalungu ecawe yakhe.

uTutu uthetha ilwimi zesi Ngesi, isiXhosa, isiZulu, seSotho kunye ne seTswana. Usoloko enconywa ngendlela akwazi ngayo ukuthetha esidlangalaleni. Intetho zakhe zaziwa ngokuchukumisa, zihlekise ziphinde zibenomtsalane. Indlela asebenzisa ngayo amagama kunye nendlela abalisa ngayo ibali, kubuyela kuthando lwakhe lokufunda neencwadi. Uyayonwabela nemidlalo kunye nomculo wakudala.

Ekuqambeli isici esithi “rainbow nation”, uTutu uxhasa kakhulu Ubuntu. Uchaza Ubuntu njenge: “ukuzola,uthando, ukwamkela nokuhoya abanye, kunye nokubalula ukufikeleleka ebantwini, ukubakhona xa abanye bekudinga kunye nokwazi ukuba wena nabo niyinto enye. Uthanda kakhulu ukusebenzisa intetho yesiXhosa ethi “umntu ngumntu ngabantu, xa ecacisa iimbono zakhe ngobuntu.

Ungakwicala le Black Theology

Lo ka Tutu uzichaza njengomntu wabantu (socialist). Ukholelwa ekubeni indlela ye capitalism yokuba umntu makaziphilele ngendlela abona ngayo, ikhuthaza inkohlakalo nohrwaphilizo ebantwini. Nangona ezayamanise neembono ze socialism, uyayigxeka indlela yayo ye Marxism-Leninism, neyayikhuthaza ubukomanisi kunye nokungakholelwa ku Thixo. Wathelekisa indlela ohrulumente be Marxism, abaphatha ngayo abantu bayo kunye nendlela umbutho we National Party wawuphatha ngayo abemi boMzantsi Afrika. Ndaweni yoko, umele iblack theology kunye ne African theology. Ngalendlela ufuna ukudibanisa indlela zokucinga ezimbini zenkolo yobu Krestu. Watsho esithi akufanelanga ukuba iindlela zase Ntshona zibonwe zibaluleke ukodlula ezase Afrika. Ukhuthaza umbono wokumanyana kwabantu base Afrika.

“Sonke sibopheleleke ku Mama Afrika, ngeentambo ezingabonwayo ezomeleleyo. Wonase wavuselela izinto ezakhe zanzulu kuthi bantu abantsundu”. - Desmond Tutu

uTutu wayekhetha iintshumayelo kunye neentetho, endaweni yemibhalo entsokothileyo ukuze abelane nabantu ngembono zezinto akholelwa kuzo. Unomdla kakhulu kwimibuzo ngobu Krestu base Afrika, efana nokuba nokuba ingatshintshwa njani indlela yobuKrestu yokunqula kusetyenziswe indlela zase Afrika. Ukwathanda nemibuzo yokuba bangakhululwa kanjani abantu emakhamandeleni. Uyayigxeka indlela yase Afrika (African theology) esilela ngayo ekusombululeni iingxaki zoluntu zalemihli, kwaye ucebisa ukuba kufanele ifunde kwi black theology xa kubhekisele koku.

Indlela yobuKrestu

©Eric Miller
UngumKrestu ozinikeleyo ukusukela ebuntwaneni. Lo ka Tutu ukholelwa kakhulu kwiindlela zalenkolo nendlela eyenza ngayo izinto. Watswalwa yi Anglicanism kuba wayecinga ukuba ikhuthaza ukunyamekelana nokuquka wonke umntu, kwakunye nokusebenzisa ingqiqo xa kubhekiselwe kwizibhalo ezingcwele kunye namasiko. Kuthiwa indlela asebenza ngayo kwezopolitiko ihambelana nobu Krestu bakhe, njengoko ekholelwa ekubeni ngumsebenza womKrestu ukuba achasane nokungalingani nenkqatheko.

Ukwame ngelithi akunakubakho kwahlukana phakathi kwe politiki kunye nenkolo, ngoba akukho kwahlukana phakathi kwezinto zomoya nezenyama. Nangona esitsho oku, ukame kwelithi akalo politiki kwaye uzama kangangoko ukuba angazayamanisi nawo namnye umbutho weze politiki. Wayikhaba ingcebiso yokuba kufanele athathe iofisi yepolitiki, ngethuba ecetyiswa nga lombono kwiminyaka yoo 1980.

Ukuchasa kwakhe uhrulumente wocalu-calulo, uTutu wayekholelwa ekubeni: Ilungelo lokuzikhethela, amalungelo abantu, ukunyamekelana wabe ekhuthaza nokuthetha nokusebenzisana phakathi kweentshaba. Wathetha phandle ekuchaseni umthetho wocalu-calulo, efanisa umbutho we National Party kunye nalowo we German Nazi Party. Waye kwathelekisa ipolisi yocalulo ne Holocaust. Wayekumele ngokungagungqiyo ukulingana ngokobuhlanga, esithi urhulumente wocalulo ukhohlakele. Wayegxeka nombutho we National Party ngokuthi chuu ukuzama ukutshabalalisa abantu abantsundu.

Uthando noku Xolela

Nangona uTutu wayechasene nomthetho wabamhlophe, wokuzicingela ukuba bangcono kunezinye iintlanga, akazange abachase bona abantu abamhlophe. Wayesoloko ebalisa ngezinto ezilungileyo ezathi zenziwa ngabantu abamhlophe base Mzantsi Afrika naphesheya awakhe wadibana nabo. Iphupha lakhe yayiluxolelwaniso phakathi kwentlanga ezahlukeneyo eMzantsi Afrika, emva kokubhangiswa komthetho wocalulo. Bonke abemi boMzantsi Afrika banikwa amalungelo alinganayo. Wayebiza eliphupha njengecala eliphumelelayo, waze waxelela abantu abamhlophe ukuba xa uhrulumente omhlophe ebhukuqwa, abantu abamnyama bayakubakhumbula ukuba ibingobani abahlobo babo.

Wayesithi xa ebamba imithandazo kawonke-wonke, angalibali ukukhankanya abo babecalula abantu ngokobuhlanga kwakunye nabo babengamaxhoba. Izizathu zakhe yayikukuba wayekholelwa ekubeni abo bacalulayo babengeyotlobo ithile yamadimoni, koko ingabantu abaqhelekileyo ababedinga nje ukuboniswa uthando.

Ngethuba esebenzela iKomishini yeNyani noXolelwaniso (Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), Tutu wayekhuthaza kakhulu indlela yobuKrestu yoxolelwaniso. Wayekholelwa ekubeni abo bebebandakanyeka kulo mthetho wocalulo kufuneka baguquke. Kwaye bathathe uxanduva olupheleleyo ngezenzo zabo, balungele nokwamkela iziphumo zezo zenzo. Kodwa nawo amaxhoba abenenceba kwaye axolele ngentliziyo ezivulekileyo.

Ukugxeka Iinkokheli

uTutu wabonakalisa isibindi ngokuthetha phandle ngokukhululekileyo mayelana nemiba elumezayo. Noxa kwakunjalo indlela awayesilwa nathetha ngayo yahlala ingenabundlobongela. Akazange asebenzise bundlobongela ukugrogrisa kwaye wayekulumkele ukubukhuthaza. Wayegxeka urhulumente wocalulo kunye namaqela awayesilwa olu calulo, ngendlela ababesebenzisa ngayo ubundlobongela ukufezekisa iminqweno yabo. Endaweni yoko wasebenzela ukuba amazwe angaphandle afake uxinzelelo kwezezimali noshishino lwase Mzantsi Afrika. Abagxeki bakukhaba oku besithi ukwenziwa koku kuzakuchaphazela abantu abantsundu base Mzantsi Afrika abasele behluphekile kakade.

uDesmond Tutu akazange azifihlele iinkokheli ezimnyama, nawayecinga ukuba zenza izinto ezingatshongo khona. Wathetha phandle egxeka iinkokheli ze Bantustans, esithi banohrwaphilizo kwaye bangohlohle sakhe. Konke oku kwakucinezela kanye aba bantu bathi babamele. Inkokheli zopolitiko zase Ntshona nazo zakufumana ukugxekwa ngu Tutu, ngenxa yokuqhubeka nokusebenzisana noMzantsi Afrika. Wathi inkxaso yabo yepolisi nemithetho yocalulo yayintama ukuba nabo banobuhlanga.

Impendulo eya ku Tutu

©Eric Miller
Impendulo eya ku Desmond Tutu, isoloko itshintsha tshintsha kuyo yonke le minyaka. Namhlanje uyenye yezona nkokheli zezenkolo zihloniphekileyo zase Mzantsi Afrika. Kodwa ngeminyaka yoo 1970 neyo 1980, iimbono zabantu ngaye zaziba kukuthanda okanye azondwe ngamandla. Kuninzi lwabantu abantsundu base Mzantsi Afrika, wayeluphawu lwempumelelo yomntu ontsundu. Wayekwasebenza njengelizwe labo bangenako ukuzithethela. Nangona ke uninzi lwalumgxeka ngelithi uyabathethela, ngaphandle kokuqala athethe neenkokheli zoluntu nangokuba nesandla esithambileyo kubantu abamhlophe.

Uninzi lwabemi abamhlophe base Mzantsi Afrika babecaphuka sisenzo sakhe sokumelela ukungaba kungashishinwa (economic sanctions) noMzantsi Afrika. Babemtyhola nangokuba sisixhobo sokuphumeza imibono yama komanisi, kwaye babesoyika ukuba angaphemba ubundlobongela. Urhulumente wocalulo wenza kangangoko ukumenyelisa ngokwenza iicampaigns ezaziguqula iintetha zakhe ukuze kurhuqeke igama lakhe eludakeni.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana