Desmond Tutu: Wanuna endzhaku ka nhenha

Wanuna wa migingiriko yotala

©Eric Miller
Desmond Tutu u hlamuseriwa tani hi wanuna wa mintirho yotala nakuka anga twisiseki. Vanhu lava anga hlangana na vona loko aha dyondza e England hi malembe yava 1960s a va hlamarisiwa hi vu Afrika bya yena bya mafundha naku tsandzeka ku tumbeta swilo. U sungule ku hatla a tsakeriwa swinene hi vona, xikanwe na kukota ku hanya vutomi lebyi fanaka nkarhi hinkwawo. U tiveka tani hi munhu loyi anga hlweleki ku hatla a khunguvanyeka, munhu wa rirhandzu, swin’wana leswi nsati wa yena a tshamaka arikarhi an’wi tlangisa hi swona. Wanuna wo khathalela vanwana na mafundha xikan’we naku tshembeka leswi kalaka swinene, u vikiwa kuva a hlwela ku kwata naswona anga tsakeli ku vavisa munhu unwana hiku tiyimisela. Tutu u tlhela a tiveka tani hi munhu loyi a tirhaka hi matimba nova na vutlharhi.

Wanuna wa vurhon’wani, u tsakela ngopfu ku hlayisa ndzhavuko wa xi Afrika na vumunhu. U tinyika nkarhi eka vanhu laha a yingiselaka, a xeweta xikanwe naku tsundzuka masiku ya nkoka (kufana na masiku yaku velekiwa), u khensa vanhu, u hlayisa nkarhi naswona anga rhandzi ku hleva vanhu. Loko a tirha tani hi mufundhisi u teke nkarhi waku tshama naku vhakela swirho swa kereke. Tutu u vulavula tindzimi ta English, Xhosa, Zulu, Sotho naxi Tswana naswona utala ku ndhundhuzeriwa eka kuvulavula ka yena eka ntshungu. Mbulavulo wa yena hi lowu a hlawulaka no paketela kahle marito yakwe, yo nyanyula no koka rinoko. Kutirhisa ka yena ririmi na vuswikoti byo hlamusela kahle xitori switlhelela eka rirhandzu rakwe ro hlaya matsalwa. U tlhela a tsakela mintlangu na vunanga bya classic.

Ku sungula rito ra “rainbow nation”,Tutu u seketela ngopfu timhaka ta Ubuntu. U hlamusela Ubuntu tani hi: “mafundzha, rirhandzu, ku rhurhela vuendzi, ku van a ntiyiso eka vanhu, ku tshembeka, kuva kona eka van’wana xikanwe naku tiva leswaku ukatsiwe na vona eka xikatsa xa vutomi”. U rhandza xivuriso xa xi Xhosa lexinge “munhu i munhu hi van’wana vanhu” ku kombisa mavonelo ya yena eka Ubuntu.

Ku seketeriwa ka Black Theology

Tutu uti hlamusela tani hi munhu loyi a hanyaka na vanhu. U tshemba leswaku kuhumelela ka loyi anga tiya i maendlelo lawa ya hlohletelaka leswaku vanhu va humesa swilo swoka swingari kahle hi vona. E handle kakuva ari ekusuhi swinene na vu socialist, una ntsakelo swinene wa matimba eka Marxism-Leninism leyinga ndlela ya xi socialism, leswi hlohletelaka vu communism na atheism. U pimanyisile ndlela leyi mfumo wa Marxist wu khomaka hikona vanhu va wona na ndlela leyi vandla ra National Party ringa khomisa swona ma Afrika Dzonga. Ematshan’weni, hiyena a hlohletelaka black theology na African theology, laha a lavaka ku hlanganisa swikolo leswimbirhi swa miehleketo ya Christian theology. U njhekanjhekisane ngopfu hiku ariwa ka mintolovelo yaxi Western kuva yivoniwa yiri ya xiyimo xale henhla kutlula ya xi Afrika. U hlohletela vun’we lebyinga heriki eka ma Afrika.

“Hinkwerhu ka hina hi bohiwile hi Mother Afrika hi swiboho leswinga vonakeki. U kurisile swilo swotala eka hina vantima.” - Desmond Tutu

Tutu a tsakela ku chumayila ekerekeni naku nyika mabulu eka ntshungu kutlula ti essay ta tidyondzo taku avelana mavonelo. Una ntsakelo swinene eka swivutiso leswi vutisiwaka hi African Christianity kufana na kucinca vutitwi bya xikreste eka ripfumelo na ka xi Afrika naku ntshunxa vanhu. Una vukheta swinene eka swiphiqo swa African theology eka ku lulamisa swiphiqo swa vutomi naku hlohletela leswaku swifanele ku dyondziwa eka black theology.

Maendlelo ya xi Kriste

©Eric Miller
Mukreste wo tiyimisela kusukela e vuhlangini, Tutu a nghenile hi nhloko eka swa vupfumeri na maendlelo yakona. A tsakela ngopfu Anglicanism hikuva a ehleketa leswaku yi hlohletela ku kondzelela na vun’we xikan’we naku kota ku switirhisa hi vumbirhi ka swona eka matsalwa na ndzhavuko. Kuvuriwa leswaku maendlelo yayena eka swa tipolotiki swihlangana ngopfu na vukreste tani hileswi atshembaka leswaku i ntirho wa mukreste unwana na unwana ku lwisana naku pfumala ndzingano. U tlhela a vula leswaku kungaka kungavi na ku hambanyisiwa exikarhi ka vupfumeri na tipolotiki hikuva akuna ku hambanyisiwa exikarhi ka mfumo wa ximoya na wa nyama. E handle ka sweswo, u tlhela a tiyisisa leswaku yena anga n’watipolotiki naswona u ringeta ku papalata kutitshuneta eka vandla rihi na rihi ra tipolotiki. U tlhele a bakanyela e tlhelo miehleketo ya leswaku u fanele a kuma ntirho wa tipolotiki loko atava a nyikiwile wona hi malembe yava 1980s.

Eka ku lwisana ka yena na mfumo wa xihlawuhlawu, maendlelo ya Tutu akuri lawa ya xidimokirasi, timfanelo ta ximunhu, ku kondzelela na kuhlohletela mbhurisano naku kondzelelana exikarhi ka valala. U vulavule kotala hi vubihi bya xihlawuhlawu, laka a fananisa maendlelo ya National Party na lawa ya vandla ra Nazi rale Germany naswona a fananisa milawu ya xihlawuhlawu na Holocaust. A yima swinene na ndzingano wa muvala, laha a vula leswaku xihlawuhlawu xina tihanyi naswona a sapatela vandla ra National Party kuva riringeta ku herisa rixaka raka ntimeni hika ntsongo ntsongo.

Ntwela vusiwana na ndzivalelo

Hambi leswi Tutu a sola swinene mfumo wa valungu, anga fikelelangi ku kaneta vanhu va nhlonge yo basa, laha a ehleketa ntokoto wa kahle lowu angava na wona na valungu laha tikweni ra Afrika Dzonga nale matikweni mambe. Norho wa yena akuri wa ndzivalelano exikarhi ka tinxaka to hambana hambana ta Afrika Dzonga endzhaku ka kuherisiwa ka xihlawuhlawu naswona ma Afrika Dzonga hinkwawo va nyikiwa timfanelo toringana. Avula maendlelo lawa yayena tlhelo ro humelela naswona a byela ntshungu wa valungu leswaku siku mfumo wa ntshikelelo wungata hluriwa vantima vataswitsundzuka leswaku vanghana vavona hi vahi.

Loko Tutu a endla swikhongelo entshungwini anga rivali ku vika lava tisaka xihlawuhlawu na lava tshikeleriwaka. Xivangelo xa yena eka leswi akuri leswaku vaendli va milandzu ya xihlawuhlawu akungari madimoni, kambe vanhu vanene lava faneriweke hiku kombiwa rirhandzu. Hinkarhi wa ntirho wa yena eka Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), Tutu a hlohletela leswaku kutirhisiwa vukreste tani hi ndlela yorivalelana. A tshemba leswaku lava ava lwela ntshunxeko vafanele kuhundzuka, vateka vutihlamuleri bya swendlo swa vona, valulamela ku amukela swita ndzhaku swakona, kambe lavanga xanisiwa vafanele kuva na tintswalo kutani varivalela kungari na swipimelo.

Ku soriwa ka varhangeri

Tutu u kombisile matimba yakuva a vulavula hiku ntshuxeka eka timhaka to kanetana, hambiswiritano, kulwa ka yena aswingari na madzolonga. Anga tirhisangi madzolonga tani hi xixungeto naswona a tiyisisa leswaku anga swiseketeli. U sorile swinene mfumo wa xihlawuhlawu na mintlawa ya valwela ntshunxeko eka kuva va tirhisa madzolonga kufikelela swilaveko swa vona. Ematshan’weni, u hlohletele leswaku matiko yale handle ya tshikelela tiko ra Afrika Dzonga eka ikhonomi hambi leswi anda soriwa swinene hilava ava vula leswaku sweswo swita nyanyisa xiyimo xa vantima va Afrika Dzonga lexi axinga yimangi kahle na khale.

Desmond Tutu anga yimangi ku sola varhangeri lava avanga tikhomangi kahle va tihanyi. U sole ngopfu varhangeri va vantima vati Bantustans avula leswaku vana vukungundwani naswona vatirhela makhwiri ya vona loko van’wana varikarhi vadya rikoko ra xilondza. Varhangeri va tipolotiki taxi Western vasoriwile swinene hi Tutu kuva vaha tirhisana na tiko ra Afrika Dzonga. U vule leswaku nseketelo wa milawu ya xihlawula mbala kuva yi endliwa akuri hikokwalaho ka vona.

Nhlamulo eka Tutu

©Eric Miller
Nhlamulo eka Desmond Tutu ayi tshamela ro hambana kuya hi malembe. Namuntlha ava murhangeri wa kereke wo hlonipheka e Afrika Dzonga, kambe hiva 1970s nava 1980s mavonelo hi yena akuri ya rirhandzu yo tiva kumbe rivengo. Eka vantima va Afrika Dzonga, a kombisa kuhumelela naswona ari rito ra lava pfumalaka rito, hambi leswi vanwana avanwi sola kuva a vulavula hikuva yimela kambe anga tihlanganisangi na varhangeri va vaaki xikan’we nakuva na ntwela vusiwana eka valungu.

Ma Afrika Dzonga votala aswiva kwatisa swinene loko a lava leswaku matiko yale handle ya tshikelela ikhonomi ya tiko, vanwi lumbeta kuva xitirhisiwa xa makhomonisi naku chava leswaku switatisamadzolonga. Mfumo wa xihlawuhlawu u ringete hi matimba kun’wi sola hi mapfhumba yavona yo tirhisa marito yakwe kunwi onha vito evanhwini.