U-Desmond Tutu: Indoda Eyayingqayizivele

Indoda Enezingxenye Eziningi

©Eric Miller
U-Desmond Tutu uye wachazwa njengomuntu wezingqimba eziningi nokuphikisana okuphikisanayo. Abantu abahlangana nabo ngesikhathi esifundelwa eNgilandi ngawo-1960 babesabisa ukufudumala kwe-Afrika kanye nokuntuleka kokuvimbela. Ngokushesha wabathanda, ikhono alondoloza kulo lonke ukuphila kwakhe. Uyaziwa njengomuntu ozwelayo, onomdlandla: into yakhe umfazi wayevame ukumkhathaza. Ngomusa omuhle futhi okhathalelayo nokuthembeka okungajwayelekile, kuthiwa uyashesha ukuthukuthela futhi akasoze ahlukumeza othile ngenhloso. UTutu uyaziwa nangokuthi usebenza kanzima futhi uhlakaniphile kakhulu.

Indoda enomusa, unesifiso sokusekela amasiko nama-Afrika. Ulalelisisa abantu, uqiniseke ukuthi ubingelela, khumbula izinsuku ezibalulekile (njengezinsuku zokuzalwa), ukubonga abantu, ukugcina isikhathi futhi ungalokothi uhlanganyele ekuhlebeni. Ukusebenza njengompristi wenza umzamo okhethekile wokuchitha isikhathi kanye nokuvakashela amalungu esonto lakhe.

UTutu ukhuluma isiNgisi, isiNgisi, isiZulu, iSotho nesiSwana futhi uye wadunyiswa ngokukhuluma kwakhe obala. Izinkulumo zakhe ziyaziwa ngokuthi zihlakaniphile, zihlakaniphile futhi ziyathandeka. Ukusebenzisa kwakhe ulimi nokukwazi ukukhuluma indaba enhle kuhoxisa uthando lwakhe lokufunda nezincwadi. Ubuye ujabulele umculo wezemidlalo nomculo we-classic.

Ukuhlanganisa igama elithi "isizwe sobumnyama", iTutu isekela umqondo wobuntu. Uchaza Ubuntu njengalokhu: "ububele, ububele, ukungenisa izihambi, ukuvuleka kwabanye, ukuhlukumezeka, ukutholakala kwabanye futhi ukwazi ukuthi uboshiwe nabo emkhakheni wokuphila". Uyakuthanda isiXhosa ngokuthi "umuntu ungumuntu ngokusebenzisa abanye abantu" ukukhombisa imibono yakhe ku-Ubuntu.

Ukukhuthaza iMfundiso Yezemvelo Zabamnyama

UTutu uzichaza njengomuntu wezenhlalakahle. Ukholelwa ukuthi ukusinda kwenqubo egcwele kakhulu ye-capitalism kukhuthaza ezinye zezici ezimbi kakhulu kubantu. Naphezu kokuvumelana kwakhe nemibono yezenhlalakahle, ugxeka indlela kaMarxism-Leninism yezenhlalakahle, okugqugquzela ubukhomanisi nokukholelwa kuNkulunkulu.

Waqhathanisa indlela ohulumeni baseMarxist abaphatha ngayo abantu babo ngendlela iNational Party abaphatha ngayo abantu baseNingizimu Afrika. Esikhundleni salokho, ungummeli wezinkolo ezimnyama nemfundiso yenkolo yase-Afrika, efuna ukuhlanganisa izikole ezimbili zomcabango wamaKristu. Uphikisana nokunqatshwa kwamazinga aseNtshonalanga ukuba kubhekwe njengamazinga aphezulu e-Afrika. Ukhuthaza umqondo wobumbano obumbene base-Afrika

"Sonke sibophezelekile kuMama Afrika ngokungabonakali kodwa izibopho eziqinile. Ukhulise izinto ezijulile kithi abamnyama." - UDesmond Tutu

I-Tutu iyakuthanda izintshumayelo namakheli esikhundleni sezinhlobonhlobo zemfundo ukuze babelane ngemibono yakhe yemibono. Unesithakazelo ngokukhethekile emibuthanweni yobuKristu base-Afrika njengendlela yokuguqula inkulumo yobuKristu yokholo nabantu base-Afrika nendlela yokukhulula abantu. Ugxeka ukwehluleka kwemfundiso yenkolo ye-Afrika ekubhekaneni nezinkinga zomphakathi zanamuhla futhi kuphakamisa ukuthi kufanele ufunde emfundisweni emnyama ngale ndaba.

Indlela yobuKristu

©Eric Miller
UmKristu ozibophezelekile kusukela ebuntwaneni, uTutu unamathele kakhulu emibonweni nemikhuba yenkolo. Wathandwa yi-Anglican ngoba wacabanga ukuthi ukukhuthaza ukubekezelelana nokuhlanganiswa kanye nokusebenzisa isizathu kanye nomBhalo wenkolo kanye nesiko. Kuye kwathiwa ukuthi indlela yakhe yezombusazwe ihlobene ngokuqondile nobuKristu bakhe njengoba ekholelwa ukuthi kuyimfanelo yomKristu ukuphikisa ukungabi nabulungisa.

Uqinisekisa ukuthi angeke kube khona ukuhlukana phakathi kwenkolo nezombusazwe ngoba akukho ukuhlukaniswa phakathi kwezinto ezingokomoya nezingokwenyama. Naphezu kwalokhu, uqinisekisa ukuthi akayena osombusazwe futhi uzama ukugwema ukuzihlanganisa naye nganoma yiliphi iqembu lezombangazwe. Wenqaba isiphakamiso sokuthi kufanele athathe isikhundla sezombusazwe lapho lo mbono wethulwa ngawo-1980.

Lapho ephikisana nohulumeni wobandlululo, indlela kaTutu yayinayo yentando yeningi, amalungelo abantu, ukubekezelelana nokukhuthazwa kokuxhumana nokuhlala phakathi kwezitha. Ukhulume ngokucacile ngokumelene nenqubo yobandlululo, efanisa i-ethos ye-National Party yalokho ye-German Party yamaNazi futhi eqhathanisa nenqubomgomo yobandlululo kuHolocaust. Wema ngokuqinile ukulingana ngokohlanga, ebiza ubandlululo nokugxeka iNational Party ngokuzama ukubhubhisa kancane abantu abamnyama.

Uzwela Nokuthethelela

Ngisho noma uTutu ephikisana nomthetho ophakeme omhlophe, akazange aphikise abantu abamhlophe, elandisa okuhlangenwe nakho okuningi okuhlangenwe nakho ayekunabantu abamhlophe eNingizimu Afrika nakwamanye amazwe. Iphupho lakhe kwakuwukubuyisana phakathi kwezinhlanga ezahlukene zaseNingizimu Afrika ngemuva kokuba ubandlululo luqothule ngokuphelele futhi bonke abantu baseNingizimu Afrika banikezwa amalungelo afanayo.

Ukhulume ngecala lakhe njengelungu eliwina futhi watshela izithameli ezimhlophe ukuthi uma uhulumeni ocindezelayo echithwa abantu abamnyama bazokhumbula ukuthi bangani babo.

Ngesikhathi uTutu enza imithandazo yomphakathi akazange akhohlwe ukukhuluma ngalabo abaxhasa uhlelo lobandlululo kanye nezisulu zalo. Isizathu sakhe salokhu kwakuyikholo lokuthi abenzi bobugebengu bobandlululo babengekho uhlobo lwamademoni, kodwa abantu abavamile abafanelwe ukuboniswa ububele.

Phakathi nomsebenzi wakhe weKhomishani yeQiniso neKubuyisana (TRC), uTutu wakhuthaza indlela yobuKristu yokubuyisana. Wayekholelwa ukuthi labo abathintekayo emzabalazweni wobandlululo kufanele baphenduke, bathathe umthwalo ogcwele ngezenzo zabo, bekulungele ukwamukela imiphumela, kodwa ukuthi izisulu kumele zenze isihawu futhi zinikeze ngokuthethelela kwabo.

Ukugxeka Abaholi

UTutu wabonisa isibindi ekukhulumeni ngokukhululekile mayelana nezindaba eziphikisanayo, kodwa ukuvuselela kwakhe kwahlala kungezona ubudlova. Akazange asebenzise ubudlova njengengozi futhi wayeqaphele ukuba angawuvumeli. Usola uhulumeni wobandlululo kanye namaqembu aphikisana nobandlululo ngenxa yokusebenzisa ubudlova ukuze bafeze izinhloso zabo.

Esikhundleni salokho, wakhuthaza ukucindezelwa kwezomnotho wangaphandle ukuthi abekwe eNingizimu Afrika ngisho nalapho ehlangene nokugxekwa kwabagxeki abathi le nqubo yayiyolimaza kuphela abantu baseNingizimu Afrika abamnyama abampofu.

U-Desmond Tutu akazange agweme ukugxeka abaholi abacabanga ukuthi baphatha kabi. Ukhulume ngokumelene nabaholi abamnyama baseBantustans bethi babekhohlakele futhi bebanakekela kuphela izithakazelo zabo ukuze babangele abantu ababenomthwalo wabo. Abaholi bezombusazwe baseNtshonalanga bathola ukugxeka kukaTutu ngokugcina ubudlelwane neNingizimu Afrika. Uthe ukusekelwa kwabo komgomo wezinhlanga kuqaliswe ukucwaswa kwabo.

Impendulo kuTutu

©Eric Miller
Ukusabela kuDesmond Tutu kuye kwahlukahluka kulo lonke iminyaka. Namuhla ungomunye wabaholi benkolo abahlonishwa kakhulu eNingizimu Afrika, kodwa phakathi neminyaka yama-1970 no-1980 imibono yakhe yayivame ukuba yothando olunamandla noma inzondo. Kwabaningi abamnyama baseNingizimu Afrika, wabonisa ukufezekisa okumnyama futhi wakhonza njengezwi labo abangabonakali, nakuba abanye bemgxeka ngenxa yokukhuluma egameni labo ngaphandle kokubonisana nabaholi bomphakathi kanye nokungahloniphi abantu abamhlophe.

Abaningi baseNingizimu Afrika abamhlophe abanokuziphendulela babethukuthele ekubizweni kwakhe kwezomnotho ezweni, bammangalela ngokuthi uyisithakazelo sokufeza imigomo yamaKhomanisi futhi besaba ukuthi uzogqugquzela ubudlova. Uhulumeni wobandlululo wenza konke okusemandleni ukuze amdumise ngemikhankaso yabo eyasebenzisa amagama akhe ukuze ahlukanise isithombe sakhe somphakathi.

Translated by Nsika Khoza