Desmond Tutu: Indvodza Lengemuva kweLichawe

Indvodza Yetigaba Letiningi

©Eric Miller
Desmond Tutu uchazwe njengendvodza yetigaba letiningi kanye nekusho intfo lengasiyo yemsindvo. Labantfu lakabatsemba ngesikhatsi sakhe sekufundza eNgilandi nga 1960 batfuswa yimfutfumalo yakhe yase Afrika kanye nekushoda kwentfo lemisa lokunye. Washeshe watikhombisa kibo, kanye nemandla lawagcina imphilo yakhe yonkhe. Watiwa njengekutsi usheshe atsintseke, unemusa: intfo le umkakhe bekavama kumdlalisa ngayo. Ngekunaka lokukahle kanye nelizinga lekunakekela kanye nekwetsembeka lokungakajwayeleki, kutsiwa uyaphuta kukwata futsi abengeke ahlukumete noma alwise umuntfu. Tutu watiwa nangekutsi usebenta ngekutimisela futsi uhlakaniphile.

Indvodza lehloniphako, unebuntfu ngekuphakamisa emasiko ase afrika kanye nemavelo. Uyanaka dvute ngekunika bantfu sikhatsi, abenesiciniseko kutsi uyabingelela, ukhumbula tintfo letimcoka (njengetinsuku tekutalwa), kubonga bantfu, yiba nesikhatsi futsi unganaki tintfo tekuhleba. Kusebenta njengemfundisi wenta taba letinemandla kutsi acitse sikhatsi aphindze avakashele emalunga elisontfo lakhe.

Tutu ukhuluma Silumbi, siXhosa, siZulu, siSotho ne siTswana phindze abedvunyiswa ngekukhuluma kwakhe nesive. Tinkhulumo takhe tatiwa ngekutsi tiyakhona kwakhana, tihlakaniphile futsi tiyakhutsatana. Kusebentisa kwakhe lulwimi kanye nemandla ekusho indzaba lenhle kuchubela kusuka elutsandvweni lwekufundza kanye ne literature. Uphindze atsandze temidlaloo kanye nemculo losetulu.

Kunika lelitemu “sive lesihlangahlangene”, Tutu usekela leligama lelitsi Ubuntu. Uchaza Ubuntu njenge: kubaneluvelo, kutiphatsa, kukhululeka kulabanye, kukhinyabeteka malula, kubakhona kulabanye kanye nekwati kutsi uhlangene nabo kulibhande lemhlaba”. Utsandza lesisho sesiXhosa lesitsi “umuntfu ngumuntfu ngebantfu” uma achaza imizwa yakhe nge Ubuntu.

Kusekela Inkholo Yalabamnyama

Tutu utichaza njengemuntfu lotsandza kuhlanganyela nebantfu. Utsemba kutsi kuphila kwalecinile kufika ngekukhutsata letinye tintfo letimbi kubantfu. Ngaphandle kwemilayini yebantfu, uyanaka nge Mnotfo nepolitiki-nekwakheka kwe Lenisism ngekuhlanganyela, lokwakhulisa kukhuluma kanye ne bantfu labangatsembeli ku nkulunkulu. Ubekisa ngendlela hulumende we Marxist lephatsa ngayo sive kuya endleleni yekuphatsa iPhathi yeSive eNingizimu Afrika. Esikhundleni, usisekelo senkholo yalabamnyama kanye nenkholo yase Afrika, kufuna kulinganisa tikolwa letimbili Temakholwa lafundzako. Wakhulumela kujikisa lizinga lase Western kutsi kubukwe njengoba besetulu kumazinga ase Afrika. Ukhutsata indlela yekukhuluma emacebo ngekuhlanganisa ema Afrika.

“Tsine sonkhe siphocelelekile kumake wase Afrika ngekungabonakali kepha kuhlangana loku akukavami kuyekeleka. Unakekele letintfo letijulile kutsi bantfu labamnyama." – Desmond Tutu

Tutu utsandza tinkhonzo phindze akhulume ngemfundvo kwentela kuhlephula imibono yakhe nematsemba. Futsi ukhatsateka kakhulu ngemibuto lebutwa Ngemakholwa ase Afrika kufana nekutsi Ungafakani esikhundleni Senkholo yelitsemba naleyo yase Afrika nekutsi ke ingakhuluma njani nebantfu. Uyanceneka ngenkholo yase Afrika ngekukhuluma tinkinga tekuhlangana phindze nekuveta kutsi kumbe kwenteke ufundze ngenkholo yalabamnyama ngalendlela/simo.

Kukhuluma ngeNkholo

©Eric Miller
Likholwa lelitinikele kusuka ebuntfwaneni, Tutu ungene wajula kumibono yenkholo kanye netento. Wakhangeka ku Anglicanism ngoba ucabanga kutsi uphucula kuvana nekufana kanye nekusebentisa sizatfu lesihambisana nelivesi lenkholo kanye nemasiko. Kushiwo kutsi kukhuluma kwakhe kutepolitiki ihlangene ngekucondza kuNkholo yakhe njengoba atsemba kutsi nguwona msebenti weliKholwa kutsi limise lokungekho emtsetfweni.

Ugcina loko ngeke kube nekwehlukana emkhatsini wenkholo kanye nepolitiki ngoba kute kwehlukana emkhatsini wemoya kanye netintfo tenyama. Ngaphandle kwaloko, uphindze agcine kutsi akasuye umpolitiki phindze azame kutimatanisa nephathi yanoma nguyiphi yepolitiki. Wasusa lesincumo lokutsi yena kumele atsatse tintfo telihhovisi lepolitiki uma umbono avetwa nga 1980s.

Ngekumisa kwakhe kuhulumende wepolitiki, kukhuluma kwa Tutu kwaba nguloko kwenkhululeko, emalungelo ebantfu, kumelela kanye nekutfutfukisa kukhulumisana kanye nekuhlalisana emkhatsini wetitsa. Wakhuluma ngekukhululeka ngesimo selubandlululo, nekutsandza tintfo tePhathi yeSive kuleyo Phathi ye German Nazi kanye nekumatanisa umtsetfo wepolitiki ku Holocaust. Wema wacina ngekulingana kwelibala, kubita lubandlululo njengentfo leyikungcola kanye nekugceka iPhathi yeSive ngekutama kubulala kancane bantfu labamnyama.

Kuvela kanye neKucolela

Noma Tutu amisa umtsetfo walabamhlophe, akazange amiswa kubantfu labamhlophe, kubala kufundza tintfo letiningi latibonile anebantfu labamhlophe eNingizimu Afrika nangaphesheya. Liphupho lakhe kwakukubuyisana emkhatsini kwetive letehlukene tase Ningizimu Afrika banikwa emalungelo lalanganako. Uya entfweni yakhe njengendlela yekuwina waphindze wakhuluma nebantfu labamhlophe kutsi ngesikhatsi hulumende lobekacindzetela alahlelwa ngaphandle bantfu labamnyama bangakhumbula kutsi bangani babo bobani.

Ngesikhatsi Tutu abambe imithandazo yesive akazange akhohlwa kubala labo lebebaphakamisa lubandlululo nalabo lebebaphocelelwa. Sizatfu sakhe kwaba kwetsemba kutsi bagcugcuteli belubandlululo bebangasiyo indlela yelidimoni, kepha bantfu labangibo lekumele bakhonjwe luvelo.

Ngesikhatsi semsebenti se Truth ne Reconciliation Commission (TRC), Tutu wavikela indlela yeNkholo yekubuyisana. Abetsemba kutsi labo lebebakhona kumzabalazo welubandlululo kumele bagucuke, tsatsa sinyatselo lesigcwele ngemisebenti yakho, ulungele kumukela tinkinga takkho, kepha leso sento kumele sisebente ngemusa phindze ubenemoya lophansi kanye nekucolela.

Kugcekwa kweBaholi

Tutu wakhombisa kutetsemba nakakhuluma ngaphandle ngetinkinga letichubekako, nomakunjalo, kutsatsa kwakhe tinyatselo kwasala kungasiwo umsindvo. Akazange asebentise kulwa njengendlela yekwetfusa kantsi futsi abenakile kutsi angakuchubekisi. Wagceka kokubili hulumende welubandlululo kanye emacembu langekho kulolubandlululo ngekusebentisa kulwa kwentela kutfola kuthula noma kuphela.

Esikhundleni, wasekela kutsi kuphushela umnotfo wemave angaphandle kutsi kufakwe eNingizimu Afrika noma nje wahlanganiswa nebumnyama kusuka ekugcekweni lokwatsi lenandlela kutoba yindlela yekususa lobuphuya lobuvele bukhona kubase Afrika labamnyama.

Desmond Tutu akazange abamba ekugcekweni kwakhe ngebaholi lapho acabanga kutsi benta ngendlela lengasiyo. Wakhulumela baholi labamnyama be Bantustans atsi bebangakalungi futsi abebuka tintfo lebebakadze batifuna kuvala imisebenti lebekumele bayentele labantfu. Baholi base Western bepolitiki batfola kugcekwa ngu Tutu ngekunaka lobekuhlanganisa ne Ningizimu Afrika. Watsi kusekelwa ngibo ngalomtsetfo welibala lowafakwa bowubuke libala ngakuncenye yabo.

Imphendvulo leya ku Tutu

©Eric Miller
Imphendvulo leya ku Desmond Tutu yayihlukanisiwe iminyaka yonkhe. Namuhla ngumunye webaholi benkholo lohlonishwako kubaholi base Ningizimu Afrika, kepha ngesikhatsi sa 1970 na 1980 imicondvo yakhe beyivame kuba kumbe yelitsandvo lelicinile noma kwenyanya. Kubantfu labaningi labamnyama base Ningizimu Afrika, ukhomba kutsi kuphumelela kwalomnyama kanye nekubekwa njengelivi lalabo labangenawo, noma nje labanye bebamgceka ngekukhuluma esikhundleni sabo ngaphandle kwekutsintsa baholi bemmango kanye nekutinika sikhatsi sebantfu labamhlophe.

Labaningi labamhlophe base Ningizimu Afrika bakwatiswa kumisa kwakhe kwemnotfo kulelive, bamusola ngekuba lithuluzi lekutfola tintfo letisemaphetselweni baphindze besaba kutsi utowenta umsindvo. Lo hulumende welubandlululo wazama kwenta lokungetulu kwawo kutsi umsuse ngemikhankaso yawoo leya limata emagama akhe kwentela kulimata simo sakhe esiveni.

Translated by Phindile Malotana