Izifo Zokunguda Zemidiliya - Umhlwa Omhlophe

© Prof Piet Goussard Winetech

Umhlwa Omphlophe Okanye Ukungunda Emagqabini

Umhlwa omhlope nokwabizwa ngokungunda emagqabini, ubangwa yintsholongwane yokungunda ebizwa nge Uncinula necator kwaye sesona sifo sinzima sokungunda. Impawu zomhlwa omhlophe zingabonwa emagqabini, kumahlumela kunye nakwi bhantshi zomdiliya. Iimpawu zokuqala zivamise ukuba ngamachokoza angacacanga aluhlaza (hayi amachokoza e oli) emagqabini. Xa igqabi lijongelwa ekukhanyeni, uboya obu ngwevu-mhlophe buyacaca kula machokoza.
Kumahluma asemancinci, kuvela amachokoza amhlophe-ngwevu, naye ajike abemnyama ekuhambeni kwethuba. Izihlahla zikhula kungunda oku mhlophe-ngwevu kumaxolo nakwi ziqu zezihlahla. Umhlwa omhlophe wenza incasa embi kwi wayini. Iintsholongwane zomhlwa omhlophe ziyalala phakathi phakathi komdumba kwaye ziphuma ngoko nangoko xa kukho umdubulo. Idiliya kulula ukuba ihlaseleke kwaye esi sifo kufuneka silawulwe kwasekuqaleni kwexesha lolimo. Imithi yemidiliya kufuneka itshizelwe ukukhusela umhlwa omhlophe kunye nentwala yomdiliya (nenganwenisa esi sifo) kwiveki ezi 2,4 kunye nezi 6 emva kodubulo lomdumba.
Kodwa ke, kukwabalulekile ukuba kuqalwe kwangethuba (xa ihluma lisenobude obuzi 2-5 cm) kwaye kungagqithiswa xesha lide phakathi kwe mitshizo. Njenge sifo esichaphazela iwayini, umhlwa omhlophe ulawulwa ngezibulali ntsholongwane, kodwa esi sifo asipheli xa kusetyenziswe uhlobo olunye lwe sibulali ntsholongwane.
Iindidi zediliya ezifana ne Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Riesling, Sémillon, Pinotage, Sultana kunye ne Muscadel, nezichumayo, zi ethe-ethe ngakumbi kunezinye indidi zediliya. Zikwakhona nezinye indlela ezinokwenza kunciphe ukukhula kokungunda:
Yenza ulawulo lwesidiliya kwaye ulawule nokhula kwintsimi yesidiliya.
Nciphisa izichumiso ze naytrojen kwintsimi esele ichumile.
Nkcenkceshela ngoku isidiliya sisafumile, umzekelo ekuseni.
Ukunyusa amanqwanqwa okuxhasa imithi, indawo ejonge kuyo imiqolo, indawo ekuyo intsimi yediliya nazo zingadlala indima ekomeni msinya kwamagqabi.

Isifo Esichaphazela Iwayini

Isifo esichaphazela iwayini sibangwa yintsholongwane yokungunda ebizwa ngePlasmopara viticola kwaye sibonwa ngama chokoza e oli atyheli. Kwimo zezulu ezifumileyo, ukungunda okumhlophe okububoya kuyavela phantsi kwamagqabi. Iintsholongwane ziqala ngaphantsi kwalamachokoza anyinyithekayo. Sandiswa yimvula kunye nomoya. Iintsholongwane ziyahluma zize zingene phakathi kwigqabi. Amachokoza eoli avela kwintsuku ezi 5-15 emba kokosuleleka. Izihlahla ezisencinci zijika zibemdaka ngombala zinyinyitheke ziphethe sezisoma ziwe. Kwimeko ezifumileyo, ukungunda okumhlophe, okububoya kungabonwa kwizihlahla zemidiliya. Iidiliya ezichaphazelekileyo ziyayeka ukukhula, zijike zibemdaka ngombala, zishwabane ze ziwe. Amahlumela amancinci aluhlaza nawo angosuleleka.
Le ntsholongwae iyalala kwisityalo esingcolisekileyo emhlabeni. Elona xesha kufuneka kulawulwe ngalo esi sifo kusekuqaleni kwexesha lokutyala. Qwalasela imithi yediliya ukhangele amachokoza anyinyithekayo kwi veki ezintathu ukuya kwezine emva koku dubula komdumba. Thintela ukosuleleka ngenkqubo yokutshiza yezibulali ntsholongwane zokungunda. Tshiza phambi kokosuleleka uphinde kabini ngeveki ngethuba lemo yezulu enethayo.
Qaphela ukuba kufuneka kutshizisiswe kwaye oku akuzusuke kukhusele intshula ezisandula kukhula. Imvula yehlisa amaqondo okungcola emagqabini. Emva kokosuleleka: Tshisa ngqo ngezitshizi ezibulala intsholongwane yokungunfa ngaphambi kokuba kuvele amachokoza anyinyithekayo. Ukuba kuvele amachokoza anyinyithekayo, tshiza ngqo emva kobusuku obushushu obumanzi.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana