Izifo Zokhunta Ezihlasela Amagrebhisi - Isikhunta

© Prof Piet Goussard Winetech
Powdery mildew - also called oidium - can be spread by mealybugs.

Isikhunta Esisampushana noma i-Oidium

Isikhunta esisampushana sibizwa nangokuthi i-oidium, sibangelwa i-Uncinula necator. Izimpawu ze-oidium zingabonwa amaqabunga, amahlumela kanye namagilebhisi omvini. Izimpawu zokuqala ngokuvamile amabala aluhlaza (hhayi amafutha) amaqabunga. Uma iqabunga liqhutshwa ngokumelene nokukhanya, izinwele ezimhlophe zizobonakala ezindaweni. Emasimini amavini amancane, amabala abumpunga-amhlophe ayavela aphenduke mnyama kamuva. Amagrebhisi abonisa ukukhuphuka ubumpunga-mhlophe ku-zikhumba neziqu. I-Oidium ibangela ukunganambitheki kwewayini.

Impova ze-Oidium zihlala zilele ngaphakathi kweklumu futhi zikhishwa ngokushesha uma kukhona ukuhluma. Umvini ungangcoliswa futhi lesi sifo kufanele silawulwe ekuqaleni kwenkathi. Imivini kufanele ifafazwe ukuvimba i-oidium nembungulu (engasakaza lesi sifo) emavikini amabili, amane, nesithupha ngemuva kokubonakala kwesiqu. Kodwa-ke, kubaluleke kakhulu ukuqala ngesikhathi (ubude besiqu bungamasentimitha amabili kuya kuhlanu) futhi hhayi ukwelula izikhathi phakathi kokufafaza. Njengesikhunta, i-oidium ilawulwa nomuthi ngokuhlelekile, kodwa lesi sifo simelana lapho kusetshenziswa uhlobo olulodwa lomuthi.

Izitshalo zokulima ezinjenge Chardonnay, uKenin Blanc, iRiesling, i-Sémillon, i-Pinotage, i-Sultana ne-Muscadel, ezikhula namandla, zitheleleka kalula. Kukhona nemikhuba eminingi yezivini ezingakwazi ukunciphisa ukukhula kwesikhunta:

Faka isimbozo kahle nokulawula ukhula esivinini.
Nciphisa umanyolo wenayitrojeni emvini okhula namandla.
Nisela lapho isivini sesivele sinamanzi, isibonelo ekuseni.
Ukufaka isakhiwo sokusekela isitshalo,inkombandlela yomugqa kanye nendawo yesivinini kungabangela ukoma okusheshayo kwamaqabunga.

Isikhunta Esiphansi (Downy Mildew)

Umkhuhlane we-Downy ubangelwa ukhunta i-Plasmopara viticola futhi ubonakala ngobala “lwamafutha” ophuzi kuqabunga. Phakathi nezimo ezimanzi, isikhunta esimhlophe, esinoboya sikhula phansi kwamaqabunga. Impova zikhula ngaphansi kocashazi lwamafutha njalo isakazwa yimvula nomoya. Impova ihlume futhi ingene ngaphakathi kweqabunga ngokusebenzisa umsipha ngaphansi kweqabunga.amacashazi amafutha avela ezinsukwini ezinhlanu kuya kweziyishumi nanhlanu emva kokutheleleka.

Izithelo ezincane ziba nsundu futhi zinefutha futhi ekugcineni zime bese ziwa. Ezimweni ezinomswakama, ukhunta omhlophe noboya kungabonakala kumagilebhisi. Izithelo ezithintekile zima ukukhula, ziphenduke nsundu, zigoqobale futhi ziwe. Amahlumela amasha aluhlaza futhi angangenwa igciwane.

Isikhunta silala ezitshalweni ezinegciwane eziwile emhlabathini. Isikhathi esibucayi sokulawula isikhunta esisampushana kusekuqaleni kwenkathi. Qaphela amacashana amafutha emivinini amaviki amathathu kuya kwamane ngemva kokuphuma kwesiqu. Vimbela ukungcola ngohlelo lokuvimbela ngokusebenzisa umuthi wokhunta. Fafaza ngaphambi kokutheleleka bese kabili ngesonto ngesikhathi semvula.

Qaphela ukuthi kudingeke isimbozo esihle ukuvimbele izitshalo ezisha.Imvula inciphisa amazinga ensalela. Ngemuva kokutheleleka: fafaza umuthi olwa nokhunta ngaphambi kokuba kuvele amafutha. Uma amabala amafutha evela, fafaza umuthi ngqo emva kosuku onumanzi okufudumele.

Translated by Nsika Khoza