Izimbuzi Zomdabu zaseNingizimu Afrika

©Marinda Louw
Ngokusho koMnyango: ezoLimo, amaHlathi kanye namaHlishi (DAFF) kunabalimi abangu-250 kuphela eNingizimu Afrika. Izimbuzi zitholakala kuzo zonke izifundazwe zaseNingizimu Afrika nge-Eastern Cape, eLimpopo naseKwaZulu-Natali ezikhiqiza cishe amaphesenti angu-70 kuzo zonke izimbuzi eNingizimu Afrika.
Imbuzi ye-Boer, i-Savanna ne-Kalahari Red njengamanje ibhekwa njengemikhakha emithathu ebaluleke kakhulu yokuhweba imbuzi yokukhiqiza inyama yezimbuzi eNingizimu Afrika. Inyama yembuzi ivame ukubizwa ngokuthi i-chevon uma ivela kubantu abadala kanye ne-cabrito isuka ezilwaneni ezincane.
Izimbuzi ze-Angora zikhiqiza i-mohair futhi zihlonywe kabili ngonyaka. Iningi labakhiqizi bama-mohair base-Eastern Cape kanti izinhlanzi zicutshungulwa futhi zithengiswa ePort Elizabeth.
Abafuyi bezimbuzi bomdabu kanye nabalimi bezilwane babekade begxile esifundeni saseMpumalanga Kapa kodwa manje batholakala eLimpopo, eNorth West, KwaZulu-Natali nakwezinye izifundazwe zaseNingizimu Afrika.
Imbuzi yemvelo yemvelo (IVG) ayibhekwa njengembuzi yokudoba yezokuhweba (ngenxa yesidumbu sayo encane) futhi ayithathwa njengembuzi yobisi njengoba inikeza ubisi obanele ngokwanele ukuhlinzeka izidingo zezingane zayo. Kodwa-ke, izimbuzi zendabuko zifunwa kakhulu ekusetshenzisweni kwemikhuba yamasiko nezenkolo emikhosini yaseNingizimu Afrika futhi zithole amanani aphakeme ngezikhathi ezithile zonyaka lapho le mikhosi ibanjwa.
Amakhumba kanye ne-cashmere nakho kungenziwa ku-IVG's.

Izimbuzi Zenyama eNingizimu Afrika

©Marinda Louw
Imfuyo enjengembuzi ye-Boer, i-Savannah ne-Kalahari Red iyaziwa kakhulu emhlabeni futhi ifunwa kakhulu ngenxa yezici mayo eziphakeme ezifana nokuzivumelanisa nezimo, ubunzima, izimo ezinhle zokubeletha, ukukhiqizwa kwenyama kanye nokukhiqizwa okuphezulu.
Imfuyo edumile yezinkomo ebizwa ngokuthi 'Boer' ivela eNingizimu Afrika. Kuyinto imbuzi ethandwa kakhulu futhi ekhiqizayo kakhulu imbuzi.
I-Chevon iphakathi kuka-50 kuya ku-60% ephansi kunamafutha kunenkabi kodwa inokuqukethwe okufanayo kwamaprotheni. I-Chevon iphinde ibe namafutha kunenkukhu futhi ayinayo ukunambitheka kwe-venison.

Imbuzi yeTankwa

©Thinus Jonker
Imbuzi ye-Tankwa, etholakala eTankwa Karoo National Park iyindlela yokubhaliswa njengomhlobo omusha eMnyangweni wezoLimo, amaHlathi kanye namaHlishi (2018).
Ucwaningo luye lwabonisa ukuthi le mbuzi iyiqoqo elihlukile elivela inyama kanye nobisi bezinhlobo zezimbuzi eNingizimu Afrika futhi izosungulwa njengendawo yokukhiqiza umhlaba futhi hhayi njenge 'Umdabu Wembuzi Yezilwane' (IVG).

Izimbuzi Zasendle Zomdabu (IVG) eNingizimu Afrika

©Marinda Louw
Ama-ecotypes amane ezimbuzi akhona ngaphakathi kwesigaba se-IVG eNingizimu Afrika. I-ecotype iyinhlanga ehlukile ngokobuciko phakathi kwezinhlobo (ezifana nezinja).
Uhlobo lwe-Nguni (i-Mbuzi) luyingcosana kunazo zonke futhi luvame ukubonisa izimpawu zaseSwitzerland.
I-Eastern Cape Xhosa-ear ear isisilwane esikhulu esinamandla enezindlebe ezinkulu.
I-Northern Cape Speckled yimbuzi enkulu enomzimba omhlophe onamabala obomvu noma omnyama.
I-Kunene-uhlobo lwe-Kaokoland yembuzi iyimbuzi enesisindo esiphakathi enemilenze ende emincane kanye nombala we-toned.
Umphakathi we-IVG eNingizimu Afrika ukhula ngokushesha ngamaqembu amasha amasha asetshenziswe ezifundazweni ezihlukahlukene. Izinsuku zolwazi kanye nezendandatho zithandwa futhi ukuhlukana phakathi kwama-eco-izinhlobo kudikibala.

Ukufuya Izimbuzi Zobisi eNingizimu Afrika

©Marinda Louw
Imfuyo yezimbuzi (ubisi bezimbuzi) ikhula ekuthandeni. Kodwa-ke, uma kunikezwe ukukhishwa okukhulu kwesilwane sofuzo lwezinkomo, kunamathuba amaningi okwenza ibhizinisi lokulima imbuzi likhule eNingizimu Afrika. Noma kunjalo, umqondo wokusebenzisa ubisi izimbuzi kubalimi abancane abathuthukayo eNingizimu Afrika awuzange uthathwe futhi ulandelwe uhulumeni, naphezu kochwepheshe abaqhuba izifundo iminyaka emihlanu.
UMnyango wezoLimo, amaHlathi kanye namaHlathi uhlolisisa ukuzalwa kweSaenen njengemfuyo enkulu yezinyane lembuzi eNingizimu Afrika ngenxa yemikhiqizo yakhe ephakeme - ngaphezu kuka-1 200 amalitha obisi emjikelezweni wezinyanga eziyishumi.
Eminye imfuyo yezinkomo ezimhlophe ezisetshenziselwa eNingizimu Afrika ihlanganisa iToggenburg (grey noma emnyama ngemicu emhlophe ebusweni), iBrithani Alpine (abamnyama abanezimpawu ezimhlophe), i-French Alpine, i-Anglo-Nubian neBunte Deutsche Edelziege (BDE).
Ngaphandle kwemikhiqizo yobisi, ubisi lwezimbuzi kusetshenziselwa imikhiqizo yomzimba kanye ne-skincare.

Izimbuzi Zenxoza eNingizimu Afrika

©Marinda Louw
Izimvu zikhiqiza uboya, kepha izimbuzi zikhiqiza i-fiber - cashmere ne-mohair. I-Cashmere - uhlobo lwe-fiber, hhayi uhlobo lwesilwane - luhlanganiswe ne-undercoat yezimbuzi futhi lubaluleke kakhulu ngokufudumala, okunethezeka nokugqoka isikhathi eside. I-Gorno Altai ne-Saffer yizinhlobo ezimbili zembuzi ezibonakalayo ngokukhiqizwa kwe-cashmere ngenkathi i-Angora imbuzi ikhiqiza i-mohair. Izimbuzi ze-Angora zihlonywe kabili ngonyaka (ama-Angora izimbuzi azihambisi) kanti i-cashmere ingaqoqwa lapho izimbuzi zihamba ngezinhlanzi.
Izifundo ezenziwe yi-'Cashmere Program 'eholwa amaqembu ahlukahlukene awakhiwa' iCashmere Working Group 'eNingizimu Afrika ngawo-1990 yabonisa ukuthi izimbuzi zendabuko njengezimbuzi zeBoer, zinezingubo ezimbili - izinwele eziqaphayo, kanye nenhlawulo noma i-cashmere uhlobo lwe-fibre. Ezingaphezu kuka-4 000 ze-fleece sampuli testes, kutholakale ukuthi ngaphezu kuka-80% aqukethe uhlobo lwe-cashmere phansi.
Kodwa ubuningi be-fiber cashmere ngokuvamile akusezingeni elamukelekayo kwezohwebo. Isilinganiso esiphansi kwesisindo se-fiber sezimbuzi zaseBoer nase-Savannah sasingu-25 gm ngembuzi ngayinye nembuzi yasemdeni elinganiselwa ku-12 gm ngembuzi ngayinye.
Embikweni wakhe wocwaningo, u-Albie L. Braun wathola ukuthi ubude be-fiber ubude nokukhiqizwa kwe-cashmere kungathuthukiswa ngokuzalisa ama-ewes ezimbuzi ezinkomo ezithwele izinqama ezinkulu ze-cashmere ezingenayo.
Ukukhiqizwa kweCashmere yisikhathi nokusebenza okukhulu futhi kudinga cishe imizuzu engu-20 ukuhlamba imbuzi. Noma kunjalo, inkampani encane eMpumalanga Kapa ngaseButterworth ikhiqiza imikhiqizo ephezulu ye-cashmere kusukela e-fiber ye-Mbuzi yembuzi yasendlini.
I-Mohair ikhiqizwa imbuzi ye-Angora ikakhulukazi eMpumalanga Kapa naseKaroo, okungaphezu kwama-50% okuthunyelwa ngaphandle. I-South African Mohair Growers 'Association (SAMGA) isekela abalimi bezimbuzi ze-Angora.

Translated by Nsika Khoza