Indlela Yekukala Bumanti beMhlabatsi

Nge Njongo Yeluhlelo Lwekunisela

©Louise Brodie
Kubalulekile kwati simo sebumanti bemhlabatsi kwentela kutsi loko lokukhulako kunganisela lesitjalo ngesikhatsi lesilungele kuciniseka kutsi kukhona bumantana lobudzingekako kulomhlabatsi khona letimphandze talesitjalo titokudvonsa. Kukala lomhlabatsi kanye nekuciniseka kutsi lenhlanyelo ayihlupheki ngalokungadzingeki kanye nekulahlekelwa kukhicita ngendzaba yekushoda kwebukhona bemanti kulomhlabatsi kwentela kucina kwalesitjalo lesihlumako, tindlela letehlukene kanye netintfo tekusebenta kuyacashwa kwentela kugadza lomhlabatsi kanye naloko lokwatiwako lokusetjentiselwa injongo yeluhlelo lwekunisela ngunati:
iMitha ye Neutron Probe
Kwekuvimba lokuyi Gypsum
iTensiometer noma irrometer
Indlela yekuva noma yekuvela
iTime Domain Reflectometry (TDR) Probe

iMitha ye Neutron Probe

Le Mitha ye Neutron Probe ikala bumanti bemhlabatsi ngekusakata emanuetron emhlabatsi logegeletele. Lolokusetjentiswako kufaka iprobe ekugcineni kwale khayibuli leholela ifike ebhokisini lemitha. Le probe itfwala indlela ye neutron lephangisako, lengaba yinhlanganissela ye radium ne beryllium noma iAmericium ne beryllium.
Emashubhu eAluminium lavumela emamilimitha lamakhulu lasihlanu kuya kumamilimitha layinkhulungwane ngebudze kanye nemamilimitha lamashumi lamatsatfu nakubili ngebududla netintfo letisimisako letivalako letibekwe ensimini lapho khona kufundzeka khona lobumanti. Ngetimphandze letingashoni kakhulu tenhlanyelo kanye nekwemnyaka, tigadla letimfisha tingasetjentiswa kunaleto tinhlanyelo tetimphandze letishonako noma tetikhatsi letindze.
Lama neutron probe atfola kwehla kulelishubhu lelivumelako kuya kulobududla lobudzingekako kantsi emaneutron laphangisako ayakhululwa kule probe. Lama neutron abese ayasakaka kulomhlabatsi. Uma lama neutron atfola letintfo tema hydrogen letincane te manti, limayela lalamaneutron liyancipha bese lelibanga lelimitha libala lenombolo yema neutron lahamba kancane. Inombolo yemaneutron lahamba kancane ayincenye kulamanti kulomhlabatsi logegeletele. Ngekufaka lolulwati kulongcondvomshina lokutfwalwa kwalobumantana kwalesihlabatsi kwatiwa kusuka ebubantini bekutjeka lobukhombisa kubalwa kwema neutrons lahamba kancane.
Buhle
Kukala kuyaphangisa futsi kuyachubekeka ngako. Kusebentisa ema Neutron Probe akudzingeki kutsi lomhlabatsi uphazamiseke futsi ungakala indzawo lenkhulu (emamilimitha lamakhulu lamabili kuya kumakhulu lamane lagegelete lamashubhu emaprobe) kunaletinye tindlela.
Bubi
Kusebentisa emaNeutron Probe kudulile, kusebentisa indlela yemsakatolosebentako futsi kudzinga kunakekelwa lokujwayelekile kwaloyo lokubukile. Kufundza lokulinganako kwebumanti lokutfwele kusuka emhlabatsini loshona kancane kuyinkinga ngoba lamaneutron laphangisako angehliswa nguletinye tintfo letincane tema hydrogens ngendzaba yetintfo letakheka etintfweni letiphilako kanjalo nangetintfo letincane letitfola lokukhona ngetulu kwemhlabatsi longemamilimitha lamakhulu lamabili. Loku kwenta umphumela ngekucagela lokungetulu kwemhlabatsi lomantana lotfwelwe.

iGypsum, Lubumba noma Kwekuplasitela kweSakhiwo sase Paris

Lesakhiwo lesikonako singaba ngema milimitha lamakhulu lasihlanu nemashumi lasihlanu ngebudze, emamilimitha langemakhulu lamatsatfu nemashumi lasikhombisa nesihlanu ngebubanti nemamilimitha lamashumi lamabili ngekutiya/ iGypsum, lubumba kanye neplasitela yetakhiwo tase Paris kusetjentiselwa kukalwa kwemhlabatsi ngekubbeka letitina endzaweni lefanele kulomhlabatsi lekumele akalwe phindze agadvwe. Tintfo tekuhambisa gesi takhiwa ngekushiyana kwemamilimitha langemashumi lamabili kuya kuletitina.
Lenandlela yekukala isebenta ngehanjiswa kwagesi. Uma intsambo yagesi ihanjiswa ngetintfo tekuhambisa gesi letimbili lokungavumi kwekuhamba kwalogesi yincenye yalokutfwalwa kwebumanti kuletitina. Umalesitina simanti, lokuhambisa kuphakeme bese ngaloko kungavumi kuphansi. Kahlekahle, lendlela yekuhambisa gesi lefundzeka ngemakhulu lamane kuya emakhulwini lasitfupha ema ohms ekwaleni ngelinani lensimu kanye nasekugobaneni lokungaba tinkhulungwane letimashumi lasihlanu, lekungulapho lesitjalo singeke sisakhona kudvonsa emanti ladzingekako lasuka kulomhlabatsi kwentela kutigcina sona. Lemibhalo itsatfwa nge Wheatstone Bridge Bouycos libholoho lemanti lelinetinhlayiya letomile.
Faka lesitina se gypsum kulomhlabatsi longakaphatamiseki.
Lokukabi
Titina te gypsum atetsembeki kahle emhlabatsini lomanti.

iTensiometer noma iIrrometer

©Louise Brodie
iTensiometer yintfo lesetjentiswako lekala kucina lapho kubanjwe khona emanti ngumhlabatsi. Kufaka, ngetulu kwako, emasentimitha lasiphohlongo eporous ceramic oma tinkomishi telubumba letihlanganiswe kumetallic levikelako noma lishubhu leligilasi lelinekuvuleka ngetulu. Lenandlela igcwaliswe ngemanti kusuka ekuvulekeni ngetulu kwalelishubhu futsi kutomantisa kakhulu lelingetulu lelibumba leporous. Kubese kuvalwa ngalesivalo umakubekwe kulomhlabatsi.
Faka le tensiometer ngekubhora umgodzi ubebanti phindze ushone kahle kwentela kutsi kwenele kahle lelishubhu kuletimphandze letisebentako talenhlanyelo. Akukameli kubekhona tindzawo temoya ngetulu noma kulelishubhu. Kumele kuvaleke kucine kahle. Bumantana kulenkomishi kumele kudvonswe kuphume ngekomisa lomhlabatsi lowugegeletele. Loku kwenta indzawo lete umoya kulelishubhu lekalwa ngekucagela. Uma lendzawo lefunwako kufikwa kiyo, lomhlabatsi kumele uniselwe. Lokucagelwa kwendzawo lete umoya kuveta kucina lokuhambela kusimo sinye kepha kufika ku 0.85 wesimo kuphela.
Lokuhle
iTensiometer ilula kantsi futsi kulula nekuyifaka kanye nekufundza bumantana bemhlabatsi nge situ. Iyasentiseka ngekuhlela kunisela etinhlanyelweni leto letidzinga kufakwa njalonjalo ngendlela lephansi yekucina kwemhlabatsi.
Lokukabi
Buncelencele be tensiometer bungaba ngu 0.85 ngetigaba temoya ube umhlabatsi lokhona lomantana uhambela kuya kusinye sigaba semoya. Le tensiometer iphindze ibengulekahle kakhulu emhlabatsini weludzaka kunemhlabatsi welibumba lelisindzako.

Kuva kanye Nendlela Yekubonakala

Umangabe tonkhe letindlela letingetulu tingatfolakali, lokukucagelwa kwemalungiselelo ebumantana lobutfwelwe angasetjentiswa njengentfo yekugcina ngemifanekiso yemhlabatsi lotsetfwe esisindvweni lesinconywako. Lemifanekiso yalesihlabatsi icindzetelwa esandleni bese kuvela kanye nekubonakala kwawo kuyatsatfwa. Ngekusebentisa lenandlela, bumantana bemhlabatsi longiwo lotfwelwe angeke kutfolwe liciniso ngawo.

iTime Domain Reflectometry (TDR) Probes

©Louise Brodie
Lama TDR probes ayindlela lensha lesetjentiswa ekuhlelweni kwekunisela. Lenandlela ikala lesikhatsi lesitsatsako sekushaya kwagesi kutsi uhambe budze beluhwayela lolufakwe kulomhlabatsi.
Lama TDR probes avama kusetjentiswa etindliniletiluhlata futsi acondze kakhulu. Futsi, nomakunjalo, ayindlela ledulile kutsi asetjentiswe endzaweni lenkhulu.

Translated by Phindile Malotana