Iindlela Zokumeda Ubuswe Ehlabathini

Umncopho Wokuthelelela

©Louise Brodie
Kuqakathekile ukwazi izinga lobujamo bobuswe obusehlabathini ukwenzela bona amaphayiphu wokuthelelela arhone ukuthelelela iintjalo ngesikhathi esilungileko ukuqiniseka bona kunobuswe obutlhogakalako ehlabathini lapha umrabhu uzokudosa khona. Ukumeda ubuswe obusehlabathini begodu uqiniseke bona isitjalo esitlhagiswa kugandeleleka ngokomkhumbulo okungatlhogakaliko besilobe umkhiqizo ngebanga lokungabi namanzi aneleko ukuze zirhone ukukhula, kunendlela ezihlukeneko kanye nensetjenziswa ezisetjenziselwa ukuhlola ihlabathi, begodu ezisetjenziswa khulu ngomncopho wukuthelelela yi:
YI-Neutron Probe Meter
Gypsum block
Tensiometer nanyana i- irrometer
Feel and appearance method Iindlela ephatheka ngayo neqaleka ngayo kanye ne-
Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) Probe

I-Neutron Probe Meter

I- Neutron Probe Meter Imeda ubuswe ngokurhatjha ama-neutron eendaweni ezizombeleze ihlabathi. Iinsetjenziswa zimumethe usingulo elibukhali ekugcineni kwe-cable yokuhlola i-rate meter box. Isungulweli limumethe umthombo we-neutron omsinya, okungaba yihlanganisela ye- radium kanye ne-beryllium nanyan i- Americium kanye ne-beryllium.
Amatjhubhu we-Aluminium ayi-500 mm to 1 000 mm long and 32 mm ngobubanzi lapha kubekwa khona iimvalo esimini lapha kuzokuthatha khona izinga lobuswe. Lapha iintjalo zinomrabhu ongatjhingeliko, kuzokusetjenziswa amatjhubhu amafitjhani kunalakha istjalo zinemirhabhu etjhingelako.

Etjhubhini kufakwa i-neutron probe etlhogakala ekutjhingeleni komgodi kuvulelwe ama-neurons amasinya ekhitjhwa ngesungulo. Ama-neutrons asatjalaliswa ehlabathini.Lokha ama-neutrons ahlangana ne-hydrogen atom yamanzi, Ibelo lama-neutrons liyaphunguka kuthi iimitha yebelo ibale inomboro yama-neutron abuthaka. Inomboro yama-neutrons abuthaka ilingana neyamanzi ehlabathi ezombelezileko. Ngokufaka ilwazeli ku-software esebusweni behlabathi kwaziwa ngokobana yi-calibration curve etjengisa ukubala kwama-neutron okwenziwe buthaka
Okuhle ngazo
Kulula ukumeda ngokusebenzisa indlela la begodu kuragela phambili.Ukusebenzisa i-Neutron Probe akutlhogi bona ihlabathi iphazanyiswe begodu kungamedwa indawo ekulu (200 mm ukuya ku- 400 mm ukuzombeleza itjhubhu eliyisungulo) kunezinye iindlela.
Okumbi ngazo
Ukusebenzisa i- Neutron Probe kuyabiza, kusebenzisa umthambo we-radio active begodu kutlhoga ukutlhogonyelwa ngaso soke isikhathi kwenziwe ngusiyazi. Ukobana uthole imiphumela engiyo yobuswe ehlabathini engatjhingeliko kumraro ngombana ama-neurons amsinya angenziwa buthaka ngamanye ama-hydrogen atom, kuma-trace element avamise ukuba khona ehlabathini eyi-200 mm engaphezulu. Umphumela wokubala ngaphezulu ubuswe obusehlabathini.

I-Gypsum, Clay Nanyana Iintina Ezenziwe nge-Plaster of Paris

Iintina eziqinilekwezi ziyi 550 mm ngobude,375 mm ngobubanzi, zibedege nge-20 mm. Iintina zedaka, gypsum kanye ne-plaster of paris zisetjenziselwa ukumeda ubuswe obuse hlabathini ngokubeka amablogo wentina lapha kunobuswe khona ehlabathini lapha kutlhoga khona ukumedwa bekutjhejwe. Ama-electrodes amabili akhiwa ahukaniswe ngentina ngesikhandla esiyi-20 mm indlela yokumeda le isebenza isetjenziswa ngegezi.
Lokha igezi idluliselwa kuma-elecrodes amabili ukwala kwegezi ukugeleza kulingana nobuswe obusestineni.Lokha istina nasimanzi igezi iya kiso khulu ukwala kube phasi. Ama-elecrocydes afunda hlangana kwe-400 ukuya ku- 600 ohms esimini engaba yi-50 000, eukulokha istjalo singasarhoni ukudosa amanzi atlhogakalako ehlabathini ukuziphilisa. Ukufundokhu kwenziwa nge- Wheatstone Bridge Bouycos okuliblogo lamanzi lamaseli omileko.
Faka istina se-gypsum ehlabathini engaphazanyiswako.
Okumbi: Istina se- gypsum asithembeki ehlabathini emanzi

I-Tensiometer/Irrometer

©Louise Brodie
i- Tensiometer sungulo elimeda ukuqina kwamanzi okubanjwe yihlabathi, limumethe ipente yalo engaba yi-8 cm nanyana ibhigiri elenziwe ngedaka elinamathele etjhubhini lerhalasi eligeji edosako phezulu. Isistimu le izaliswe ngamanzi ukusukela emlonyeni wetjhubhu begodu lizalisa idaga. Livalwa godu yinto edusa umoya nayifakwe ehlabathini.
Faka i- tensiometer ngokudrila umgodi omkhulu ngokwaneleko ukobana uzalise itjhubhu elisemrajini westjalo. Kufanele kube nomoya ozombeleze itjhubhu. Kufanele libambe. Ubuswe obusuka ebhigirini buzokudoselwa ngaphandle ngokomisa ihlabathi ezombelezileko. Lokhu kwenza bona umoya osetjhubhini udoseke lokha nawumedwa ngegeji. Lokha ukuqina okufunwako sele kutholakele, ihlabathi iyathelelela. Igeji edosako iyitjengisi ukuqina okusemoyeni kwaphela kodwana ifunda i-0.5 85.
Okumbi ngayo
I-tensiometer kulula ukuyifaka nokufunda ubuswe obusehlabathini ngayo. Ilirhelebho lokha nawuthelelela iintjalo ezitlhoga kobana zihlalwe zifakwa i-tension meter.
Okuhle
Ukuzwela kwe-tensiometer kufika emoyeni nge-0.85 kwaphela. I-tensiometer iberega kuhle ehlabathini eyisanda

Indlela Yokuzwakala Nokuphatheka

Nange okutjhiwo ngaphezulu kungekho, kungasetjenziswa ukufunisela kobuswe kungasetjenziswa ngokuthatha aamasampula wehlabathi ekutjhingeleni okurhelelwako. Amasampula wehlabathi aputjuzelwa esandleni ukuzwakala nokubonakala kwawo kuqalwa khona. Nagokusebenzisa indlela le ngeze kwatholwa ubuswe obusehlabathini.

I-Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) Probes

©Louise Brodie
I-TDR yenza iindlela ezitja ezingasetjenziswa ekutheleleni. lndlela le imeda iskhathi sokobana igezi ikhambe ibanga ku-stainless efakwe ehlabathini.
I-TDR ivamise ukusetjenziswa kuma-greenhouse begodu incophile. Nanjana, kunjalo iyabiza lokha nawufuna ukuyisebenzisa endaweni ekulu.

Translated by Busisiwe Skhosana