Izitshalo Zokwemboza

©Louise Brodie
Izitshalo zokwemboza zitshalwa phakathi kwesivini, ngokujwayelikile zitshalwa ngomzungezo wonyaka kuye komunye unyaka. Lokhu kwenzelwa izizathu ezimbalwa, kakhulu ukuncindezela ukhula, kodwa futhi nokwehlisa izinga lokulahlekelwa umswakamo odingakalayo, ukwandisa ukwakheka komhlabathi nokuvuleleka kwamanzi ukuthi angene phansi nokuvimbela uku guguleka komhlabathi kwimigindilika.

Isikhathi esihle nesifanele ukutshala izitshalo iziyisimbozo isekupheleni kwehlobo ngesikhathi amazing okushisa komhlabathi esaphakeme ukuze kuqhume imbewu, nalapho sekubekhona imvula eyanele, ngokujwayelekile phakathi kuka April nasekupheleni kuka May.

Indlela okukhethwa ngayo izitshalo eziyisimbozo icaciswa uhlobo lomhlabathi nohlobo lwembewu etshaliwe oluzokhiqiza amagilebesi ewayini. Isitshalo esiyisimbozo esingahlala sikhona njalo esingeke sisuswe naso singasungulwa eduze kwimivini ekhula ngamandla, yize imivini ethanda ukuba nengcindezi encane ingazuza kuma ekutshaleni imidumba ezokwengeza I nitrogen emhlaathini.

Ezinye izitshalo zokwemboza ziyasiza ukumunca uma sekunomswakamo omningi emhlabathini. Isitshalo esijwayelekile sokwemboza i-triticale (okuyinhlanganisela kakolweni ne rye), kodwa abakhiqizi abaniningi bancamela ukusebenzisa inhlanganisela eyenziwe ngembewu yezitshalo.

©Francois Viljoen Wineland
Izitshalo zokwemboza ezilawulwa ngamakhemekhali noma ngokusetshenzwa ngezandla zingakha umquba walokho okwake kwaphila (organic mass) osindayo emhlabathini ozokwazi ukwehlisa amazing okushisa emhlabathini uphinde ulawule nokulahleka kwamanzi ngaphezulu.

lomumquba walokho okwake kwaphila uyakwazi ukwehlela emhlabathini ukuze uzokwenza zibengcono isimo sokwakheka komhlabathi nokukwazi ukubamba amanzi. Ngesinye isikhathi izitshalo eziyisimbozo sisebenza njengomanyolo oluhlaza uma izitshalo ezincane zisangena emhlabathini. izitshalo eziyisimbozo zikhethwa ngokokufanele umsebenzi okumelel ziwenze.

Imidumba (enjenge lupins, clover, vetches kanye ne-serradella) zibamba I nitrogen esemoyeni bese ziyidedela ukuthi ingene emhlabathini ukwandisa amazing e nitrogen emhlabathini. Ezinye izitshalo zokumboza zikhetha ngenxa yokufaneleka kwazo ukusetshebziswa njengendawo yokuhlala okuyizilwanyana okuhlasela ezinye.

Zidonsela kuzo izinambuzana ezidla izitshalo zemivini. Isibonelo sezitshalo eziyisimboza i-radish ne white mustard. I-white mustard ne-saia oats zenza umsebenzi omukhulu futhi ukucindenzela ukukhula kokhula (allelopathic – ukucindezela ukukhula kwezinye izitshalo ngokukhipha ubuthi kuso isishalo noma kwezinye).

Ama-Fava beans alungele umhlabathi onubumanzi, i-esidi aphinde azise ekukhipheni i- nitrogen. Ezinye izitshalo zokumboza anjengokusanhlamvu (grains) nama-paspalum wona asebenza ukumboza umhlabathi ukuze ungaguguleki.

Ukuqeda ukuthi kubangiswane ukumuncwa kwemisoco kwimivini, izitshalo eziyisimbozo ziyagoqwa zibe yisicaba noma zibulawe ngo September lapho nje sekuqala ukuqhamuka kwamahlumela.

Translated by Nokubonga Guliwe