Iintjalo Zokuvikela Ihlabathi

©Louise Brodie
Iintjalo ezitjalelwa ukubamba ihlabathi zitjalwa hlangana namasimu, kanengi ngendlela yokutjhugulula ukusuka emnyakeni omunye ukuya komunye. Lokhu kwenzelwa iinzathu ezimbalwa ezihlukileko; esikhhulu sazo kugandelela iimilo ezimilelako, begodu nokunciphisa ukufuthumala, ukuthuthukisa isakhiwo sehlabathi kanye nokungenelela kwamanzi begodu ukunciphisa uklurhurhuleka kwehlabathi lapho kuthulame khona. Ukutjalwa okuhle kweentjalwezi kusekuphele kwehlobo lokha umtjhiso wehlabathi usese phezulu ngokwaneleko bonyana imbewu ingathuthuka, kodwana kjube kukhe kwaba nezulu elaneleko, okuvamise ukuba phakathi kwenyanga kaSihlabantangana ukuyela ekupheleni kwakaMrhayili.

Ukukhethwa kwemihlobo yeentjalwezi kulawulwa khulu mhlob wehlabathi kanye nomhlobo wamaderibe wewayini yomhlobo loyo otjaliweko. Iintjalwezi zomhlobo wasafuthi zingatjalwa eduze nemithi yalapho imithi inamandla khona, kuthi imithi leyo eminyene kancani ingazuza eenthorweni ezingezelela ipilo ehlabathini. Ezinye iintjalwezi kuizakufuneka bonyana zisuse ukubamanzi okudluleleko kwehlabathi. Umhlobo wesitjalwesi odume khulu, waziwa nge-triticale (ekumvango werayisi kanye namabele), kodwana abakhiqizi abanengi bathanda umvango wembewu.

©Francois Viljoen Wineland
Iintjalo zokubamba ihlabathezi ezimakhemikali nofana ezilawulwa ngamakhemikhali zingabumba iququ eminyeneko nebudisi ehlabathini nekungikhjo ekuphungula umtjhiso wehlabathi begodu kulawule nokulobeka kwamanzi ehlabathini. Iququ ingangelelela ehlabathini ukwenzela ukusiza ukuthuthukisa isakhiwo sehlabathi kanye namandla wokubamba amanzi. Kesinye isikhkathi imihlobo le yeentjalo isebenza njengomanyoro ohlaza nazisese zincani zihlanganiswe nehlabathi. Imihlobo le yeentjalo ikhethelwe ukwenza eminye yemisebenzi ethileko.

Iinthoro (ezifana ne- lupins, clover, vetches kanye ne-serradella) zibopha i-nitrogen emoyeni bese iyikhuphele ehlabathini ukwenzela ukukhuphula ukumumatha i- ne-nitrogen kwehlabathi. Ezinye iintjalwezi zikhethelwa ukukghona kwazo ukuba zizindlu zeenlwanyana eziyingozi. Zirhola iinunwana ezinamanaba wemvelo weentjalo. Isibonelo seentjalwezi ngesibizwa nge-radish kanye ne-white mustard. I-white mustardkanye ne-saia oats ziyasebenziseka njenge-allelopathic plantsukwenzela ukugandelela ukukhula kweemilo ezizimilelako.

Iimbhontjisi ezibizwa nge-Fava beans zilungelel khulu ukwenzela ukuthambisa, ukwenza ihlabathi ibe ne-esede begodu nokusiza ukunothisa nge-nitrogen. Ezinye zazo ezifana namabele kanye nama- paspalum zisebenza njengendlela yokumbesa ihlabathi ukwenzela bonyana ingarhurhuleki. Ukunciphisa ukubangelana nemithi amandla, iintjalwezi zivamise ukundlalwa sipara nofana zibulawe ngenyanga kaKhukhulamungu ngesikhatyhi sokutkhurha.Translated by Johannes Nkosinathi