Izifo Zokhunta Ezihlasela Amagrebhisi - Isandla esifile ne Botrytis

© Tom Maack

Isifo Sesandla Esifile - Dead Arm Disease

Isifo sesandla esifile sibangelwa ukhunta-i-Phomopsis viticola. Izimpawu zihlanganisa umdumbu, izilonda ezihlobothizene nolensisi ezingaphansi kwamalunga amabili kuya kwamathathu ogonothi. Kubonakala ekuqaleni kwenkathi, ngemuva nje kokuhluma. Lokhu kubangela ukulahlekelwa kwezitshalo njengoba ugonothi ungakwazi ukuhlephuka kalula ezilondeni. Amachashazi ombala wephuzi abonkala emaqabungeni - angahle adideke ngokulimala okubangelwa umuthi we-paraquat. Isifo sesandla esifile silawulwa kusukela ekuphumeni kweklumu kuze kuhlume. Ugonothi onezilonda kufanele asuswe ngokusika izihlahla njengoba lezi zilonda zenza ukutheleleka okusha.

Botrytis

I-Botrytis iqala njengobala olunsundu esikhumbeni samagilebhisi. Isikhumba samagilebhisi singasuka enyameni (isibonakaliso esivamile kunazo zonke) futhi ngaphansi kwezimo ezimanzi, imbewu yokhunta ingabonakala kumagilebhisi. Kubangelwa ukunta i-Botrytis cinerea futhi kungaholela ekwenzeni iwayini elimhlophe elifunwa ngenxa yesimo sayo. Ezikhathini eziningi i-botrytis iholela ekuvuneni okuncane kanye newayini enekhwalithi ephansi newayini elibomvu elinganambitheki.

I-Botrytis ingalawulwa ngokufafaza umuthi wokhunta kusukela ngenkathi yokuhluma kuya ekuvuneni. Lawula kusukela ekuqaleni kokuvela kombala (lapho izithelo ziqala ukuvuthwa futhi zishintshe umbala) kuze kube yisikhathi sokuvuna kubaluleke kakhulu. Kudingeka ukuphathwa kompheme obekwe phezu kwezitshalo ukuze kuncishiswe isisindomthamo samaqabunga - amaqabunga aqina kakhulu, ikakhulukazi uma isimo sezulu esizungeze amagrebhisi siswakeme.

Lesi simo semvelo sikhuthaza ukuhluma kwe-botrytis. Ukungena komoya nakho kubangela ukoma ngokushesha kwamaqabunga emva kwemvula. Izivini ezivuthiwe ziyakwazi ukutheleleka kakhulu kulokhu. Ngakho-ke, vimbela ukufaka umanyolo we-nayitrojeni ezindaweni ezinokulimazeka ukuze kunciphise ukukhula kweqabunga ngokweqile. Ezivini ezithelelelkile, imvini enesifo kufanele isuswe bese ishiswa.

Translated by Nsika Khoza