Izonakalisi kunye neZifo zeeNyosi

© Chris Daly
Ukuba nolwazi mayelana nezonakalisi kunye nezifo zeenyosi kubalulekile, ukuqinisekisa ukuba ibubu lakho lisempilweni kunye nayo yonke imveliso edibene nenyosi phakathi.

Ukulawula nokuthintela izifo zeenyosi, onke amatsili/iindawo zokugcina iinyosi kufuneka zibhaliswe. Kwaye nazo naziphi na izifo okanye izonakalisi ziye kuchazwa kumbutho wabagcini zinyosi wengingqi yakho.

Esi sishwankathelo sezona zonakalisi nezifo ezibalulekileyo zeenyosi ezise Mzantsi Afrika sisekelwe kuphando ngokhuseleko lwezityalo lwe Agricultural Research Council 'ARC'.

American Foulbrood

©Jrmgkia
iAmerican foulbrood 'AFB' neyeyona isulelayo ibangelwa yintsholongwane ebizwa nge Paenibacillus larvae, kunzima kakhulu ukuyiphelisa kwaye ingabangela ilahleko enkulu kubagcini zinyosi. Impawu zesi sifo: Umbungu ofileyo unevumba elibi. Iikolini ezichaphazelekileyo zizala ngamaxesha aqeleleneyo nangafaniyo. Kwaye zinamacangce amnyama anyinyithekayo.

Isifo se Amoeba

Esi sifo sichaphazela ukucoleka kwesisu kwiinyosi ezindala kwaye sibangelwa yi protozoan Malpighamoeba mellificae. Nangona singekafunyanwa eMzantsi Afrika 2018, sele sisuka kufunywanwa eZimbabwe.

iChalkbrood

©Jeff Pettis, Bugwood
Ukungunda okubizwa nge Ascosphaera apis, nokubangela isifo se chalkbrood sihasela kuphela imibungwana yee nyosi. Imibungwana eselula ayivamisanga kubonakalisa iimpawu zesifo, kodwa iyafa xa sele ivaleleke kwizisele zayo kuba ilungiselela ukuba ibeyinyosi. Iinyosi ezisebenzayo 'worker bees' zithi xa zivula izisele zazo, zifumane imibungwana efileyo. Ziye ke ziyifudusele ngasekungeneni, ukuze lemibungwana ifileyo ibonakale gca.

Iimpawu zesifo: Abagcini nyosi baye basiqaphele esi sifo xa bebona amakhatshu ngasemnyango wamatsili achaphazelekileyo.

iEuropean Foulbrood

©National beekeeping unit
European foulbrood 'EFB' sisifo sentsholongwane esichaphazela imibungu yeenyosi zobusi ngaphambi kokuba zifikelele kwinqanaba lokujuka zibe zinyosi. Nangona singaxhalabisi kangako, isifo se EFB sesona sixhaphakileyo eMzantsi Afrika. Esi sifo sibangelwa yintsholongwane ebizwa nge Melissococcus pluton. Kukrokeleka ukuba le ntsholongwane ikhona 'kodwa ilel' kwii koIoni ezininzi. Ithi ivuke xa ikoloni iphantsi koxinzelelo.

Iimpawu ze Sifo: imibungwana efileyo okanye efayo iyaqothana ijonge phezulu. Ijika ibe tyheli okanye ntsundu, inyibilikele emacaleni ezisele okanye yome.

Nangona ifumaneka kuwo onke amaphondo ase Mzantsi Afrika, ukwanda nokwasuleleka kukhangeleka kuphezulu kakhulu kwiingingqi ezishushu ezifana ne Limpopo kunye nase nxwemeni lwa KwaZulu-Natal.

iNosema

iNosema sisifo esibangelwa yi Nosema apis, sichaphazela isisu kunye nokufunxa izinongo kwiinyosi esele zikhulile. Oku kukhokelela ekubeni zivelise ukutya okuncinci kwaye zingakhokelela kwisibalo esifikelela kwi 15% sokuhla kwemibungwana engade ikhule igqibelele ibe ziinyosi.

Iimpawu zesifo: Esi sifo singa xilongwa ngemitshini ye microscope, kodwa iimpawu zee koloni ezichaphazeleke ngamandla zingaquka iinyosi eziwa oko nezikhangeleka zidiniwe kunye nemazantsi adumbileyo. Okunye, utyatyazo oluntsundu lungabonakala emacangceni kunye nakumatsili/kwiindawo ezihlala kuzo.

Isifo se Nosema sifumaneka kuwo onke amaphondo elo Mzantsi Afrika, kodwa asikayanyaniswa nakubhubha kweekoloni zeenyosi.

Varroa Destructor

©Gilles San Martin
Igrogro encinci entsundu ngombala neyincukuthu ebizwa nge Varroa destructor yeyona ncukuthu ixhalabisayo kwiinyosi zobusi. Le ncukuthu idala ukutshintsha kwendlela ezimile ngayo kwaye izenza zibe ethe ethe iinyosi zobusi. Esi sifo saqala kwi nyosi yase Ntshona ebizwa nge 'Apis cerana', neyathi yosulela eyase Ntshona yona ebizwa nge 'Apis mellifera'.

Iivarroa zincukuthu zangaphandle emzimbeni nezithi zihlasele iinyosi zobusi ezindala kunye nemibungwana engekabizonyosi ezigqibeleleyo. Ubudlelwane bezigrogro kunye neentsholongwane, ezibangela okunye ukosuleleka, kwenze sibe maxongo nangakumbi esi sifo kubenzima nokuba sinyangeke.

Iikoloni ezina manani aphezul okosuleleka kwe varroa zikwanazo neengxaki zezinye izifo zeenyosi kunye nezonakalisi ezifana nooqongqothwane abancinci abahlala kumatsili eenyosi. Abanqongqothwane babizwa nge, chalkbrood kunye ne Braula coeca, impukane engenampiko.

Iimpawu zesifo: Amantshontsho a-ethe ethe athe saa, anee cappings ezihroxileyo nezidlakadlakana. Kubakho neemibungwana yeenyosi ethe fohlo emazantsi okanye emacaleni emacangceni. Kwii nyosi ezindala-iinyosi zobusi ezingakwazi kubhabha ncam, ezikhasayo, kunye nezingakwaziyo ukubhabha.

Amachiza eBayvarol® kunye ne Apivar® angasetyenziswa ukunyanga isifo se Varroa destructor kwilizwe loMzantsi Afrika.

iTracheal Mites

Isifo se acarine kwiinyosi sibangelwa yigrogro encinane ebizwa nge Acarapis woodi. Ezi grogro zigqobhoza umbhobho wokuphefumla weenyosi, 'trachea' zize zitye i haemolymph yenyosi ‘igazi’ lenyosi.

Iimpawu zesifo: Akukho mpawu zithembekileyo zibonakalisa okanye zintaba ukuba khona kwezi grogro, njengoko ezimpawu zikwa yanyaniswa nokosuleleka kwe Nosema kunye nezinye iintsholongwane.

iiTracheal zoyanyaniswa namaphiko amile oku kanobumba u“K” wings, iinyosi ezihrubuluza phantsi kufuphi netsili, zingakwazi ukubhabha. Ezi grogro zincinic kwaye azinakubonwa ngeliso elize, kufuneka kusetyenziswe imicroscope. Zifumaneka ngesibalo esiphantsi kuwo onke amaphondo ase Mzantsi Afrika.

iWax Moth

Umbungu owembayo obizwa nge wax moth 'Galleria mellonella' ushiya umzila oncangathi omtyibilizi kwaye wonakalisa onke amacangca othe wahamba kuwo. Iikoloni ezomeleleyo zeenyosi zise nokukwazi ukulawula isibalo sale mibungu. Amatsili/hives zeenyosi ezikwimimandla ebandayo okanye kwiindawo eziphakamileyo azinakufane zichatshazelwe yilemibungu iwax moth.

Iintsholongwane zee Nyosi

©Xolani90
Ukosuleleka kweentsholongwane kwiinyosi kuvamise ukwa yanyaniswa nee grogro ezibizwa nge Varroa. Kwaye iimpawu zayo zingabonakala ngokuthi iikoloni zibe ethe-ethe ngenxa yoxinzelelo.

Sacbrood virus 'SBV' yintsholongwane enwenayo esisifo seenyosi, neyaziwa kakhulu kunye neempawu eziqaphelekayo.

Iimpawu zesifo: Umphandle ojikeleze i-larva ugcwala amanzi angcwengileyo, logama intloko engakhulanga kuyaphi ijika ibemnyama. iSacbrood ingaqapheleka nangokuba amantshontsho angalingani abe nee cappings ezitshonileyo ezinemibala embatshileyo kunye namacala atsolo.

Ukosuleleka okungamandla kwentsholongwame ebizwa nge chronic bee paralysis virus 'CBPV' kunye ne acute bee paralysis virus 'ABPV' kubonakala ngokuba iinyosi zikhase phantsi etsilini/kwindawo ezihlala kuyo kunye naphambi kwalo. Ukufa kuye kulandele emva kwentsuku ezimbalwa. Iinyosi ezichaphazelekileyo zibonakala phezu kwee frame, zingamanga ngendlela, zingcangcazela kwaye zingakwazi nokubhabha-Esi sifo siyafana nese-Nosema.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana