Tilwanyana Letincane Letibulalako kanye neTifo teTinyosi

© Chris Daly

Kuba nelwati ngetilwanyana letincane letibulala tinyosi teluju kubalulekile kulabo labagcina tinyosi kuba nesiciniseko kutsi tilwane letincane letindizako letiphilile kanye netintfo letisezingeni lelikahle letinyosi.

Kugadza kanye nekunakekela letifo, onkhe emabhokisi ekugcina letinyosi kumele abhaliswe kantsi futsi noma ngusiphi sifo noma silwanyana lesincane lesibulalako kumele sibikwe enhlanganweni yekugcina tilwane.

Lona mbhalo lobalulekile wetilwanyana letincane letibulalako kanye netifo tetinyosi eNingizimu Afrika uselucwalingweni lwetintfo ekuvikeleni kwetitjalo lucwalingo lwe Agricultural Research Council (ARC) (Khansela weLicwaling Lwetekufuya).

iFoulbrood yase Melika

©Jrmgkia
Lesifo lesitselelanako lesiphakeme se American Foulbrood (AFB) sibangwa ligciwane le Paenibacillus larvae silukhuni kakhulu kusitfola futsi singenta kulahlekelwa kulabo labagcina tinyosi.

Timphawu talesifo: lesibungu lesifile sibaneliphunga lelibi. Bese umhlambi lotselelekile uba nemidvwebo lesakatekile lenalokumnyama, tintfo letibukeka njengalokusamafutsa lokungenile.

Sifo se Amoeba

Lesi sifo sihlupha indlela yekugaya yenyosi yeluju lendzala futsi sibangwa yi protozoan iMalpighamoeba mellificae. Noma nje ingakashiwo kahle eNingizimu Afrika (2018), itfoliwe eZimbabwe.

Chalkbrood

©Jeff Pettis, Bugwood
Sifo sekutselelana iAscophaera apis, lesibanga ichalkbrood sona sihlasela tibungu tetinyosi kuphela. Tibungu letincane letitselelekile atikavami kukhombisa timphawu kepha tiyafa ngekuvalelwa eselini yato lekusigaba sato lesiphansi natiya esigabeni sekubatindzala. Labasebenta ngetinyosi nabavula lamaseli bese batfola tibungu letifile, bavame kutimikisa ekungeneni kwemabhokisi ekugcina tinyosi, kwenta lesisibungu lesesifile, (letifile lebetigciniwe) kutsi tibonakale.

Timphawu tetifo: bagcini betinyosi bangavama kubona lesifo uma babona loku ‘ilayisi levelako’ imitimba lefile ekungeneni kwalelibhokisi lelitselelekile.

iFoulbrood yase Europe

©National beekeeping unit
iEuropean foulbrood (EFB) sifo seligciwane lesihlasela tibungu tetinyosi teluju ngaphambi kwekufika esigabeni sekubanjwa. Noma kungasiko lokumatima, iEFB ngusona sifo lesatiwako eNingizimu Afrika futsi kwentiwa ligciwane le Melissococcus pluton. Kuyasolwa kutsi leligciwane likhona (kepha alibonwa) kumihlambi leminingi futsi litsintseka uma umhlambi usenkingeni/ukhatsatekile.

Timphawu tetifo: tibungu letifile noma letifako tibheke etulu, timtfumbi noma tinsundvu, tincibilikele emaceleni alamaseli noma omelele futsi ayirabhanyana.

Noma nje itfolwa kutotonkhe tifundza tase Ningizimu Afrika, kuhlaseleka kubukeka kungasiko lokuningi etindzaweni letiphakeme kufana nase Limpopo nasemnceleni wase KwaZulu-Natal.

Nosema

iNosema sifo lesibangwa yi Nosema apis, kuhlasela lelitfumbu lelikhokha kudla lokusuka esiswini kanye nalokubamba emanutrient etinyosi letindzala. Loku kwenta kufukamela kancane kudla lokukhicitwako futsi kungenta kube ngu 15% wekwakheka kwetibungu letincane.

Timphawu tesifo: lesifo singalashwa ngesipopolo kepha timphawu taleyomihlambi letselelekile tingafaka tinyosi letimadlabha naletite umdlandla noma letihlala tidziniwe naletivuvukile ngaphansi. Phindze, umsheko lonsundvu ungabonakala emabhokisini etinyosi.

iNosema ivela kutotonkhe tifundza tase Ningizimu Afrika, kepha ayikaze yahlanganiswa ekufeni kwemihlambi.

Varroa Destructor

©Gilles San Martin
Le Varroa destructor lencane lebovu-sansundvu ngusona silwane lesidla letinye setinyosi teluju lokwenta kungakheki kahle kanye nekuceka kweluju lwetinyosi. Isakateke kusuka endzaweni lemvelo, lenyosi yeluju yase Mphumalanga (Apis cerana) kuya kunyosi yeluju yase Nshonalanga (Apis mellifera).

Umuhlwa we Varroa tilwanyana letiphila ngaletinye letihlasela kokubili tinyosi teluju kanye netibungu, kepha lobudlelwane balemihlwa nalesifo (lokwenta kuhlaseleka lokusesigabeni sesibili) kuhlangahlanganisa lokwakheka kwaletifo kanye nekwelashwa kwalesifo lesimatima.

Umhlambi longenelwe ngenombola lesetulu ye varroa nawo ubanetinkinga naletinye tifo letinye tetinyosi kanye netilwanyana letibulalako kufana nemabhokisi lamancane emabhunggane, ichalkbrood ne Braula coeca (imphungane lete timphiko)

Timphawu tesifo: kufukamela lokuphansi kanye nekusakateka kwalokufukanyelwe, tihloko letigcitjelwe naletihlafuniwe kanye netibungu letipatjatiwe ngaphansi noma ngasemaceleni aleseli. Kutinyosi letindzala–leticancako naletikhansako tinyossi teluju, kundiza lokuphuyile.

Bayvarol® ne Apivar® ingasetjentiswa ekulweni ne Varroa destructor eNingizimu Afrika.

Umuhlwa we Tracheal

Sifo se Acarine etinyosini sibangwa ngumuhlwa lomncane itracheal, iAcarapis woodi. Lena mihlwa ibhobosa liphayiphi lemoya lenyosi (itrachea) bese udla kule haemolymph (‘ingati’ yenyosi).

Timphawi tesifo: kute tinkhomba letingatsenjwa noma timphawu temuhlwa letiphilako njengetimphawu letingahlanganiswa nekutseleleka kwe Nosema kanye naletinye tifo.

Imihlwa ye tracheal ihlanganiswe netimphiko letingakahlangani te “K”, tinyosi letikhansako emhlabatsini dvute nemabhokisi ato, atikhoni kundiza.

Lemihlwa mincane futsi kumele ipotjolwe kuze itfolakale. Itfolwa ngetinombola letiphansi kutotonkhe tifundza tase Ningizimu Afrika.

Livivane le Wax

Sibungu semgodzi selivivane le wax (iGalleria mellonella) sishiya luphawu loluningi lwetintfo letimanyatelako bese sibulala lesihloko sonkhe. Umhlambi wetinyosi leticinile ungakhona kugadza lenombolo yemavivane. Emabhokisi etinyosi etigodzini letibandzako noma etindzaweni letiphakeme tihlaseleka kancane kumavivane ewax.

Ligciwane le Tinyosi

©Xolani90
Kuhlaseleka kwemagciwane etinyosini kuvame kuhlanganyela ne muhlwa we Varroa futsi kungakhombisa timphawu ngesikhatsi umhlambi uceka ngendzaba yetinkinga/kukhatsateka.

iSacbrood virus (SBV) ligciwane lelatiwako letinyosi netimphawu letibonisako.

Timphawu te sifo: sigogo sangaphandle lesigegeletele lesibungu sigcwalisa ngemanti lahlobile, ibe lenhloko lengakaveli imnyama. iSacbrood ingaphindze ibonakale ngendlela lengakavami yekufukamela ngekucwila, tihloko letite imibala ngemakona lacijile.

Kutseleleka lokuncane kwesifo setinyosi letichwalile ngesifo (chronic bee paralysis virus – CBPV) kanye nemagciwane etinyosi letichwalile (acute bee paralysis virus – ABPV) itobonisa tinyosi tikhansa emhlabatsini wemabhokisi ato kanye nasembikwemnyango wemabhokisi. Kufa kuyalandzela emalangeni.

Tinyosi letihlaselekile tiboonwa ngetulu kwetintfo letihengiwe, tingakagadzeki, titatatela futsi tingakhoni kundiza – kufana neNosema letselelekile.

Translated by Phindile Malotana