Iinunwana Kanye Namalwelwe Weenyosi

© Chris Daly
Ukuba nelwazi ngeenyosi kanye nenunwana kuqakathekile lokhanyana nawufuya iinyosi ukuqiniseka bona unomhlambi onepilo kanye nekhwalithi engcono yemikhiqizo ehlobana neenyosi.

Ukulawula kanye nokutlhogomela amalwelwe weenyosi, kanye nezindlu zazo kufanele kutloliswe begodu ubulwelwe obunye nobunye bubikwe ehlanganweni yengekhenu etjheja abafuyi beenyosi.

Ukurhunyezwa kweenunwana eziqakathekileko kanye namalwelwazo eSewula Afrika kuya ngemetheriyali yerhubhululo yokuvikelwa kweentjalo ye-Agricultural Research Council 'ARC'.

I-American Foulbrood

©Jrmgkia
Ubulwelwe obuthelelana khulu beenunwana obubizwa ngokobana yi American foulbrood 'AFB' - bubangelwa yibhakutheriya i-Paenibacillus larvae ekubudisi khulu ukuyelapha begodu ibangela bona kufe iinyosi ezinengi.

Amatjhwayo wobulwelobu: kukufa kwelava bese iba nomnuko ongasimnandi. Iinyosi ezinobulwelobu ziba namaphetheni ahlukeneko adege bese ikhekheba lazo liba inga linamafutha belirhohlomele.

Ubuwelwe be-Amoeba

Ubulwelwobu bubamba isistimu yokugaya yeenyosi begodu bubangwa yi-protozoan ebizwa bona yi-Malpighamoeba mellificae. Nanyana busengakabonwa lapha eSewula Afrika 2018, sele butholiwe eZimbabwe.

I-Chalkbrood

©Jeff Pettis, Bugwood
I-fungus i-Ascosphaera apis ebanga ubulwelwe be-chalkbrood ibamba kwaphela ilava yenyosi. Ilava encani ebnajwe bulwelobu ayikavamisi ukutjengisa amatjhwayo kodwana izowatjengisa nayiqeda ukufa ngemva kokuvala iseli yayo ye-pupae. Iinyosi ezisebenzako zivula amaseli zithole ilava efileko 'mummies' ebonakala kuhle.

Amatjhwayo wobulwelwe: Abafuyi beenyosi bangabona amatjhwayo wobuwelobu lokha nababona ama-mummy anga yireyisi ekungeneni kwezindlu zeenyosi ezingenwe bulwelobu.

I-European Foulbrood

©National beekeeping unit
I-European foulbrood 'EFB' yibhakutheriya elibamba ilava yenyosi lokha nayisesigabeni sokwenza ikhakhaba. Nanyana lingasi yingozi njalo. I-EFB bulwelwe obujwayeleke khulu beenyosi eSewula Afrika begodu bubangwa yibhakutheriya i-Melissococcus pluton. Kusulolwa bonyana i-bhakutheriya le ikhona emihlanjini weenyosi kodwana iba yingozi lokha iinyosi zigandeleleke ngokomkhubulo.

Amatjhwayo wobulwelwe: Ukufa msinya kwelava nanyana ilava ifileko esisongele ngaphambili, esarulana ngombala, nanyana enzotho, encibibilkileko emahlangothini anamaseli nanyana eyomileko enga yiraba.

Nanyana butholwa emfundeni zone zeSewula Afrika, ubulwelobu buba bukhali khulu eendaweni ezitjhisako ezifana ne-Limpopo kanye naKwaZulu-Natal.

I-Nosema

I-Nosema bulwelwe obubangwa yi-Nosema apis, ebubamba amathumbu kanye nokudoseka kwezakhi mzimba zeenyosi ezidala. Lokhu kurholela ekutheni kukhiqizwe ukudla okuncani ekungaholela bona kuthuthuke inani eliphasi lamalava elingaba yi-15% kwaphela.

Amatjhwayo wobulwelwobu: Ubulwelobu bungabonwa kwaphela lokha nakusetjenziswa i-microscope kodwana amatjhwayo waso angafaka hlangana iinyosi ezibudlabha nezidiniweko ezinamathumbu avuvukileko. Begoda zingarhuda amakaka anzotho ngombala anabonwa ezindlini zazo nanyana emakhekhebeni.

Ubulwelwe be-Nosema bungatholakala eemfudeni zoke zeSewula Afrika, kodwana abubangi ukufa kweenyosi.

I-Varroa Destructor

©Gilles San Martin
Umkhaza omncani onzotho ngombala oyi-ectoparasitic Varroa destructor yipharasayidi eliyingozi khulu leenyosi elibanga ukobana zingakheki kuhle kanye nokobana inyosi ibe sbaga. Burhatjheka ngokwemvelo, eenyosini zetjingalanga 'i-Apis cerana' ukuya eenyosini zepumalanga 'i-Apis mellifera'.

Imikhaza yomhlobo ye-Varroa yipharasayidi langaphandle elihlasela iinyosi ezidala kanye nelava. Kodwana ubuhlobo nama-virus, ebanga ukungenwa bulwelobu, benza bube budisi ubulwelobu kanye nokobana kube budisi ukubelapha obulwelwe obuyingozobu beenyosi.

Imihlambi yeenyosi ebanjwe yinomboro ephezulu ye Nosema inemiraro yamanye amalwelwe weenyosi kanye neenunwana ezifana nama-beetle atholakala ezindlini zeenyosi, i-chalkbrood kanye ne-Braula coeca, inunwana enganamaphiko.

Amatjhwayo wobulwelwe: Kuba namaphetheni abanzi angasimahle arhatjhekileko, kanye narhohlomeleko kanye namakhekheba ahlafunyiweko kanye nelava eminzileko ngaphasi nanyana emahlangothini weseli. Eenyosini ezidala – iinyosi ezingarhoni ukuphapha ezirharhabako nezichwalileko.

Bayvarol, and Apivar, ingasetjenziswa ukulwisana ne-Varroa destructor eSewula Afrika.

I-Tracheal Mites

Ubulwelwe be-Acarine eenyosini bubangwa mukhaza omncani, i-tracheal mite, Acarapis woodi. Imikhaza le isika uqhoqhoqho wenyosi udle i-haemolymph (igazi lenyosi).

Amatjhwayo wobulwelobu: Akekho amatjhwayo abonakalako womkhaza lo ngombana amatjhwayo wabo ahlotjaniswa ne-Nosema kanye namanye ama-virus.

Umkhaza i-Tracheal mite sele uhlotjaniswe nokobana inyosi enabo enempiko ezingakahlali kuhle ezingu-“K”, iinyosi ezirharhaba phasi eduze kwezindlu zazo ezibhalelwa kuphapha.

Imikhaza le mincani begodu ibonwa kwaphela ngokusebenzisa i-microscope. Ayisiminengi eemfundeni ezinengi zeSewula Afrika.

I-Wax Moth

Ilava ezembeleko ye-wax moth 'Galleria mellonella' itjhiya umtlhala we-silk orareneko owona ikhekheba loke. Imihlambi eqinileko ingarhona ukulawula i-moth. Izindlu zeenyosi ezisenfundeni ezimakhaza azikavami ukubanjwa yi-wax moth.

I-Bee Viruses

©Xolani90
i-Sacbrood virus 'SBV' is Yivarayisi eyaziwa khulu ebulwelwe ebunamatjhwayo abonakalako.

Amatjhwayo wobulwelobu: ingaphandle elizungeleze ilava lizala amanzi, lokha ihloko engakheki kuhle iba nzima. I-Sacbrood ingabonwa godu ngokobana zibe nephetheni ebanzi erhohlomeleko, enganambala kanye namakhekhebe anamahlangothi engakaqondi.

Ukutheleleka ngobulwelwobu obuyingozi obubizwa bona yi-paralysis virus 'CBPV' kanye ne-acute bee paralysis virus 'ABPV' kutjengisa iinyosi zirharhaba phasi ezindlini zazo kanye naphambi kwazo. Bese ziyafa ngemva kwamalangana.

Iinyosi ezibanjwe bulwelobu ziyaqhaqhazela, zibhalelwa kuphapha ekufana nalokha ziphethwe bulwelwe be Nosema.

Translated by Lizzy Shongwe