Switsotswani na Mavabyi ya Tinyoxi

© Chris Daly
Ku tiva ngopfu hi switsotswana na mavabyi ya tinyoxi ta vulombe swina nkoka swinene eka vahlayisi va tinyoxi ku tiyisisa leswaku vana ntlawa wa tinyoxi lowu hanyeke kahle xikan’we na khwalithi yo antswa ya switirhisiwa swa tinyoxi.

Ku lawula naku fambisa kahle mavabyi ya tinyoxi, mabaku hinkwawo ya fanele ku tsarisiwa naswona mavabyi yan’wana na yanwana kumbe switsotswana swifanele kuvikiwa eka nhlangano wale kusuhi wa vahlayisi va tinyoxi.

Nkomiso wa switsotswana swa nkoka na mavabyi ya tinyoxi e Afrika Dzonga wuya hi vulavisisi eka vulavisisi bya nsirhelelo wa swimilani bya Agricultural Research Council (ARC).

American Foulbrood

©Jrmgkia
Mavabyi lawa ya tlulelaka swinene ya American foulbrood (AFB) ya vangiwa hiti bacteria leti vange i Paenibacillus larvae leti tikaka ku lwisana natona naswona tinga tisa ku lahlekeriwa swinene eka vahlayisi va tinyoxi.

Swikoweto swa mavabyi: Swivanani leswinga fa swina nuhelo wo biha swinene. Tindzhawu letinga hlaseriwa ti hangalakile naswona tina swicoti coti swa ntima laha kungana vana vakona, ku languteka kuri na mafurha xikan’we naku mbombomela ka xipfala.

Amoeba Disease

Mavabyi lawa ya hlasela khwiri ra tinyoxi ta vulombe letikulu naswona swivangiwa hi protozoan Malpighamoeba mellificae. Hambi leswi yangase kumekaka e Afrika Dzonga (2018), ya kumekile e tikweni ra Zimbabwe.

Chalkbrood

©Jeff Pettis, Bugwood
Fungus ya Ascosphaera apis, leyi vangaka chalkbrood yi hlasela ntsena vana vatinyoxi lavaha kulaka. Vana lava va hlaseriwaka avatali ku komba swikoweto swa mavabyi lawa kambe vat a hetelela va fa endzeni kati cells tani hiti pupae. Tinyoxi leti tirhaka tita pfula ti cells kutani tita kuma vana lava va lovile, hixitalo tiva susa kuya eka nyangwa wa baku, laha swi endlaka leswaku vana lavanga fa va vonakala.

Swikoweto swa mavabyi: Vahlayisi va tinyoxi vata vona mavabyi lawa hikuva vavona vana lavanga fa enyangweni wa mabaku.

European Foulbrood

©National beekeeping unit
European foulbrood (EFB) i mavabyi yati bacteria lawa ya hlaselaka vana vatinyoxi ta vulombe vanga se tlhotlhoriwa. Hambi leswi swingariki swo chavisa, EFB i mavabyi ya ntolovelo ya tinyoxi e Afrika Dzonga naswona ya vangiwa hiti bacteria ta Melissococcus pluton. Ku ehleketeleriwa leswaku ti bacteria tikona (but latent) eka mintlawa naswona switikomba hi loko ntlawa wuri na ntshikelelo.

Swikoweto swa mavabyi: vana lavanga fa naku songana, vari xitshopani kumbe buraweni, vatlhela vakumeka etlhelo kati cells kumbe va omile vatlhela vatshapuka.

Hambi leswi ya kumekaka eka swifundzha hinkwaswo swa Afrika Dzonga, nhlaselo wutala kuva wuri henhla eka tindzhawu leti hisaka kufana na Limpopo nale KwaZulu-Natal.

Nosema

Nosema i mavabyi lawa ya vangiwaka hi Nosema apis, laha ya hlaselaka khwiri xikan’we naku tswongiwa ka swakudya hi tinyoxi letikulu. Leswi swi vanga leswaku kungavi na swakudya swotala leswi humelerisiwaka naswona swinga endla leswaku kuva na nhlayo yintsongo kufika eka 15% wa vana lava va vumbiwaka.

Swikoweto swa mavabyi: Mavabyi lawa yanga voniwa hi microscope kambe swikoweto swa nhlaselo lowukulu wa ntlawa swinga katsa kuva tinyoxi tihanya vutomi byoka byinga tolovelekangi, tinyoxi leti lolohaka tinga kukumuka makhwiri. Kunga tlhela ku vonaka nchuluko wa buraweni lowunga vonakaka eka swihlenge na baku.

Nosema yi kumeka eka swifundzha hinkwaswo swa Afrika Dzonga, kambe ayi fambelanisiwi na mafu lawa yakumekaka eka ntlawa.

Varroa Destructor

©Gilles San Martin
Ti parasite letintsongo swinene ta muhlovo wotshuka kuya eka buraweni ta Varroa destructor hi tona tingana khombo eka tinyoxi ta vulombe leswi endlaka leswaku tinga vumbeki hiku hetiseka xikan’we nakuva ti helela hi matimba. Ti sungule ku hangalasiwa kusuka laha tinga hlayisiwa kona, nyoxi ya Eastern honeybee (Apis cerana) kuya eka Western honeybee (Apis mellifera).

Varroa mites i ti parasites tale handle leti hlaselaka tinyoxi letikulu ta vulombe na vana lavaha vumbekaka, kambe vuxaka bya ti mites na switsongwatsongwani (byi tisa nhlaselo wa vumbirhi) byi tikisa mavabyi lawa xikan’we naku tshunguriwa ka mavabyi lawa ya nghozi.

Mintlawa leyinga hlaseriwa hi nhlayo yale henhla ya varroa yitlhela yiva na swiphiqo swa mavabyi yan’wana ya tinyoxi na switsotswana swofana na swifufunhunu, chalkbrood na Braula coeca (a wingless fly).

Swikoweto swa mavabyi: Kuva na kutlhotlhoriwa koka kungari kahle ka vana xikan’we naku hangalaka, kutswongiwa naku ncakunyiwa e hansi kumbe e tlhelo kati cell. Tinyoxi letikulu-ta gonoka kutani ti kasa Kunene naswona ataha koti kuhaha.

Bayvarol® na Apivar® swinga tirhisiwa ku lwisana na Varroa destructor e Afrika Dzonga.

Tracheal Mites

Acarine i mavabyi eka tinyoxi lawa ya vangiwaka hiti tracheal mite letintsongo, Acarapis woodi. Ti mites ti boxa phayiphi ya moya ya tinyoxi (trachea) kutani yidya haemolymph (bee ‘blood’).

Swikoweto swa mavabyi: Akuna swikoweto leswikombetaka mavabyi lawa swotshembeka kumbe swikoweto swa nhlaselo lowu fambisanaka na nhlaselo wa Nosema xikan’we na switsongwatsongwani swinwani.

Tracheal mites ti fambelanisiwa naku hluveka ka tipapa, kuva tinyoxi tikasa Kunene laha hansi kusuhi na baku kutani titsandzeka ku haha.

Ti mites i tintsongo naswona tinga voniwa hiku tirhisiwa ka microscope. Tikumeka hi nhlayo leyintsongo swinene eka swifundzha hinkwaswo swa Afrika Dzonga.

Wax Moth

Ku ceriwa ka vana lavaha vumbekaka (Galleria mellonella) swisiya nkoka lowuvonakaka wa silk naswona wu hlasela swihlenge hinkwaswo. Mintlawa yotiya ya tinyoxi yinga kota kulawula ntlhambi wati moth leti. Mabaku lawa yanga eka tindzhawu leti titimelaka kumbe tindzhawu tale henhla ati tali kuva tihlaseriwa hiti wax moth.

Bee Viruses

©Xolani90
Nhlaselo wa switsongwatsongwani eka tinyoxi switala ku fambelanisiwa nati Varroa mites naswona swinga komba swikoweto loko mintlawa yiheleriwa hi matimba hikokwalaho ka ntshikelelo.

Sacbrood virus (SBV) yitiveka swinene tani hi mavabyi ya tinyoxi lawa ya tlulelaka yatlhela yava na swikoweto leswivonakaka.

Swikoweto swa mavabyi: Leyara yale handle leyinga phutsela larva yiva yitele mati yo vonikela, kasi nhloko leyingase vumbekaka kahle yi dzwihalaka. Sacbrood yinga tlhela yivonaka hikuva vana lava vumbekaka vanga tshamisekangi, vari na muhlovo woka wunga tolovelekangi na swinwana.

Nhlaselo wa matimba wa xitsongwatsongwani xa chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) xikan’we na acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) swita vonaka hiloko tinyoxi ti kasa Kunene e bakwini tingaha hahi. Ti ta hetelela ti fa eka masiku lawa ya landzelaka. Tinyoxi leti khumbekaka tita vonaka ehenhla ka fureme laha tingaha koteki ku endla nchumu, ti rhurhumela xikan’we naku tsandzeka ku haha, leswifanaka nale ka nhlaselo wa Nosema.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni