Disenyi le Malwetse a Dinotshe

© Chris Daly
Go nna le kitso ka disenyi tsa dinotshe tsa tswine ya dinotshe le malwetse go botlhokwa mo baruanotsheng go netefatsa gore digopa tsa boitekanelo le boleng jwa dintsha kuno jo bo botoka tse di amanang le dinotshe.

Go laola le go tsamaisa malwetse a dinotshe, metshitshi yotlhe e tshwanetse go kwadisiwa le malwetse mangwe le mangwe kgotsa mosenyi a begiwe mo mokgatlho wa selegae wa baruanotshe.

Tshobokanyo eno ya disenyi le malwetse a botlhokwa thata a dinotshe mo Aforika Borwa e ikaegile ka patlisiso ya tshireletso ya patlisiso ya Agricultural Research Council 'ARC'.

American Foul Brood

©Jrmgkia
American foulbrood 'AFB' e e fetelelang that e tlhodilwe ke baketeria Paenibacillus mokone e popota thata go e fedisa mme e ka tlhola ditatlhegelo tse di boitshegang tsa baruanotshe.

Ditshupetso tsa bolwetse: Mokone o o suleng o na le monko o sa siamang. Ditshelammogo tse di tshwaetsegileng di gasagane le dipaterone tse di sa lekalekaneng tsa go elama, e lebelega jaaka dikhupetso tsa bokirisi le go nweela.

Bolwetse jwa Amoeba

Bolwetse bo bo ama thulaganyothugo ya bagolo ba dinotshe tsa tswine ya dinotshe mme e tlhodilwe ke protozoan Malpighamoeba mellificae. Le fa e le gore ga a ise e lemogwe mo Afrika Borwa 2018, e bonwe kwa Zimbabwe.

Chalkbrood

©Jeff Pettis, Bugwood
Fankase Ascosphaera apis, e e tlholang chalkbrood e tlhasela mokone wa dinotshe fela. Mokone wa bašwa o o tshwaetsegileng ga se gantsi e bontsha matshwao a bolwetse mme e tla swa morago ga go tswalela mo diseleng tsa tona jaaka dibokwana. Dinotshe tsa badiri di kgurumulola disele mme di bone dibokwana tse di suleng, gantsi di do sotisa mo kgorong ya motshitshi, go dira dibokwana tse di suleng tse, dimami di bonala sentle.

Ditshupetso tsa bolwetse: Baruanotshe tla nna lemoga bolwetse ka dinako tsotlhe fa bba bona 'reise e e gulegileng’ dimami kwa kgorong ya metshitshi e e tshwaeditsweng.

European Foulbrood

©National beekeeping unit
European foulbrood 'EFB' ke bolwetse jwa baktheria bo bo amang dibokwana tsa dinotshe tsa tswine ya dinotshe pele ga boemo jwa go khupetsa. Le mororo bo se masisi, EFB ke bolwetse bo bo tlwaelegileng jwa dinotshe mo Aforika Borwa mme bo tlholwa ke baketeria Melissococcus pluton. Go belaelwang gore dibaketheria e teng, mme ga e dire sepe, mo bontsing jwa ditshelammogo mme e tlisiwa ke fa tshelammogo e le ka fa tlase ga kgatelelo.

Ditshupetso tsa bolwetse: dibokwana tse di suleng kgotsa tse di swang di gogoropa go ya kwa godimo, serolwane kgotsa borokwa, e gakologa mo matlhakoreng a disele kgotsa di omile le go nna boraba.

Le fa e le gore e fitlhelwa mo diporofenseng tsotlhe tsa Afrika Borwa, ditshwaetsego go bonala di nna tse di masisi thata mo dikarolong tsa phufudi e e kwa godimo jaaka Limpopo le mabopong a KwaZulu-Natala.

Nosema

Nosema ke bolwetse jo bo tlholwang ke Nosema apis, e e amang mogodu le go monyeal dikotla tsa dinotshe tse digolo. Se se feletsa mo elamong ya dijo tse di ntshwang kuno e e kwa tlase mme e ka feletsa mo go tsweletseng 15% ye e kwa tlase ya dobokwana.

Ditshupetso tsa bolwetse: Bolwetse bo ka bonwa ka maekroskopo mme matshwao ditshelammogo tse tshwaeditsweng thata a ka akaretsa go nna le dinotshe tse di bokoa le go nna go tlhoka maatla ka dimpa tse di rurugileng. Gape, le letsholo le le borokwa le ka bonwa mo dikamong le mo metshitshing.

Nosema e diragala mo diporofenseng tsotlhe tsa Aforika Borwa, mme ga e ise e golaganngwe le maso a tshelammogo.

Varroa Destructor

©Gilles San Martin
Dintana tse di nnye tse di bokhibidu-borokwa tsa ectoparasitic Varroa destructor ke senwamadi se se masisi thata sa dinotshe se se tlholang go golafala le bokoa jwa dinotshe tsa tswine ya dinotshe. E ne ya gaswa go tswa mo tikologong ya yona ya tlhago, notshe ya botlhaba ya tswine ya dinotshe 'Apis cerana', go ya go notshe ya bophirima ya tswine ya dinotshe 'Apis mellifera'.

Dintana tsa Varroa ke dinwamadi tsa kwa ntle tse di tlhaselang bobedi dinotshe tsa tswine ya diinotshe tse di golo le dibokwana, mme kamano ya dintana le megare, e tlhola ditshwaetso tsa bobedi, di thatafatsa mekgwatiriso ya bolwetse mme le kalafi ya bolwetsi jo bo masisi ba dinotshe.

Ditshelammogo tse di tlhasetsweng ke palo e e kwa godimo ya varroa Dle yone e na le mathata le malwetse a mangwe a dinotshe le disenyi tse di jaaka dikhukhwane tse dinnye tsa motshitshi, chalkbrood le Braula coeca, ntshi e e senag mafofa.

Ditshupetso tsa bolwetse: Diparetone tse di bokoa tsa tswao le dikhupetso tse di nweetseng e bile di tlhafunilwe le dibokwana wetseng kwa tlase kgotsa mathokong a disele. Mo dinotsheng tse digolo – tse di golofetseng le dinotshe tsa tswine tse di gogobang, go fofa go go bokowa.

Bayvarol, le Apivar, di ka dirisiwa go lwesa Varroa destructor mo Afrika Borwa.

Dintana tsa Tracheal

Bolwetsi jwa Acarine mo dinotsheng bo tlholwa ke dintana tsa tracheal tse di nnnye thata, Acarapis woodi. Dintana tse di phunya mogolo 'trachea' wa dinotshe mme tsa ja haemolymph, ’madi a dinotshe’.

Ditshupetso tsa bolwetse: Ga go na ditshupo tse di ikanyegang kgotsa matshwao a disenyi tsa dintana jaaka matshwao a amana le tshwaetso ya Nosema le megare e mengwe.

Dintana tsa dintana di amananngwa le maphuka a sa tsepamanga a “K ”, dinotshe tse di gogobang mo mmung le gaufi le motshitshi, go sa kgoneng go fofa.

Dintana ke tse di dinnye thata mme di tshwanetse go bontshwa ka maekroskopo. Di fitlhelwa ka dipalo tse di kwa tlase mo Afrika Borwa kwa diporofenseng tsotlhe.

Serurubele sa Boka

Dibokwana tsa go e pa mosima tsa serurubele sa boka 'Galleria mellonella' di metšhe wa bokana jwa metlhala ya selika mme di senya kama yotlhe. Ditshelammogo tsa dinotshe tse di popota di ka kgona go laola palo ya dirurubele Metshitshi mo dikgaolong tse di tsididi kgotsa tse kwa godimonyana tse di kgonang go fenya tlhaselo ya dirurubele tsa boka.

Megare ya Dinotshe

©Xolani90
Ditshwaetso tsa megare mo dinotsheng gantsi e golagane le dintana tsa Varroa mme di ka bontsha matshwao ge ditshelammogo di le bokoa ka ntlha ya kgatelelo.

Mogare wa sacbrood 'SBV' ke bolwetsi jwa dinotshe jwa megare jo bo itsegeng thata ka ditshupetso tse di banalang.

Ditshupetso tsa bolwetse: Llaga e e kwa ntle e e dikologang diphatlha tsa dibokwana ka seedi se se bonalang, fa tlhogo e e sa golng sentle e nna lefitshwana. Sacbrood gape e ka bonwa ka paterone e e sa lekalekaneng ya tswalo brood ka mathoko, a a nweetseng, feletswe ke mmala, le dikhupetso tse di phuntsweng le mathoko a a isitsweng kwa godimo.

Tshwaetso ya dinotshe e e sa alafegeng ya mogare wa dinotshe 'CBPV' mogare wa go idibala o o tseneletseng wa dinotshe 'ABPV' e tla bontsha dinotshe tse dii gogobang mo bodilong ba motshitshi le fa pele ga one. Loso lo latela mo matsatsing a a latelang.

Dinotshe tse di amegang di bonwa mo godimo ga ditlhomeso; di sa baakanngwa, di roromela le go palelwa ke go fofa - go tshwana tshwaetso ya Nosema.

Translated by Lawrence Ndou