Izinambuzane kanye Nezifo zeZinyosi

© Chris Daly
Ukuba nolwazi mayelana nezinambuzane nezifo ze-honeybee kubalulekile kubanikazi bezinyosi ukuqinisekisa ukuthi izimpukane ezinempilo kanye nemikhiqizo ehlobene nezinyosi ephezulu.

Ukuze ulawule uphinde uphathe izifo zezinyosi, wonke ama-hive kufanele abhaliswe futhi noma yisiphi isifo noma inkathazo kubikwa kubangani bakho bezinyosi zendawo.

Lesi sishwankathelo sezinambuzane nezifo ezibaluleke kakhulu zezinyosi eNingizimu Afrika kusekelwe ekucwaningweni kocwaningo lokuvikela izitshalo ze-Agricultural Research Council 'ARC'.

I-American Foulbrood

©Jrmgkia
Enomthelela kakhulu 'i-AFB' ibangelwa izibungu zama-Paenibacillus ezinzima kakhulu kunzima ukuqeda futhi kungabangela ukulahlekelwa okunzima kwabalimi bezinyosi.

Izibonakaliso zesifo: Izibungu ezifile zinephunga elimnandi. Amakholomu aphethwe amaphethini ahlakazekile futhi angalingani nama-dark, ama-grepy akhazimulayo abheka futhi agwetshiwe.

Isifo se-Amoeba

Lesi sifo sithinta uhlelo lokugaya ama-honeybees omdala futhi kubangelwa i-protozoan Malpighamoeba mellificae. Nakuba kungakafiki eNingizimu Afrika 2018, itholakala eZimbabwe.

Chalkbrood

©Jeff Pettis, Bugwood
I-fungus i-Ascosphaera apis, eyenza i-chalkbrood ihlasela kuphela izimpungushe zezinyosi. Izibungu ezincane ezinesifo esithathelelekile ngokuvamile azibonisi izibonakaliso zesifo kodwa zizofa lapho zivalwe emangqamuzaneni abo njengama-pupae. Izinyosi zomsebenzi zingenawo amangqamuzana futhi zithole izibungu ezifile, zivame ukuzihambisa emnyango womngane, okwenza lezi izibungu ezifile, 'imizimba' zibonakala ngokucacile.

Izimpawu zesifo: Abafuyi bezinyosi bazovame ukubona lesi sifo lapho bebona lezi zinambuzane ezifakwe emanzini emnyango wezinyosi ezithathelwanayo.

I-European Foulbrood

©National beekeeping unit
I-European foulbrood 'EFB' isifo sesibhaktheriya esithinta izimpungushe ze-honey bee ngaphambi kwesiteji se-capped. Nakuba kungenjalo, i-EFB iyisifo esiningi kakhulu sezinyosi eNingizimu Afrika futhi sibangelwa ibhethri uMelissococcus pluton. Kucatshangwa ukuthi i-bacterium ikhona, kodwa idlulile, ema koloni amaningi futhi ibangelwa uma ikholoni ingaphansi kokucindezeleka.

Izibonakaliso zesifo: izibungu ezifile noma ezifayo zigobile phezulu, ziphuzi noma zibomvu, zincibilike ezinhlangothini zamaseli noma zimile kanye ne-rubbery.

Nakuba kutholakala kuzo zonke izifundazwe zaseNingizimu Afrika, ukutheleleka kubonakala kubonakala kunamandla kakhulu ezindaweni ezinomsoco ophezulu njengeLimpopo kanye noKwaZulu-Natali ogwini.

I-Nosema

I-Nosema yisifo esibangelwa i-Nosema apis, esithinta ukungena kwamanzi nesisindo sezinyosi ezindala. Lokhu kubangela ukudla okuncane okukhiqizwa okuncane futhi kungabangela izimpungushe ezincane ezifika ku-15%.

Izibonakaliso zesifo: Lesi sifo singase sibe nesifo esingenakubalwa kodwa izimpawu zamakholomu aphethwe yizifo zingabandakanya izinyosi ezinamahlumela ezinama-abdom. Futhi, ukuhuda kwesibhakabhaka kungabonakala ku-combs kanye nesifuba.

I-Nosema ivela kuzo zonke izifundazwe zaseNingizimu Afrika, kodwa ayizange ixhunywe nokufa kwabantu base koloni.

I-Varroa Destructor

©Gilles San Martin
Yi-parasite engathí sina kakhulu yama-honeybees okwenza ukuthi i-honey bees ibe ne-malformation. Kwasakazwa kusukela endaweni yayo yemvelo, i-honeybee yaseMpumalanga 'i-Apis cerana' eya e-Western honeybee 'i-Apis mellifera'.

Ama-Varroa izibungu ziyi-parasite yangaphandle ehlasela izinyosi nezinyosi zomdala omdala, kodwa ubudlelwane bomzimba obunama-viruses, obangela ukutheleleka kwesibili, buyinkimbinkimbi yesifo kanye nokuphathwa kokwelashwa kwalesi sifo esibi kakhulu sezinyosi.

Amakholomu aphethwe izinamba eziphezulu ze-varroa nazo zinenkinga nezinye izifo zezinyosi nezinambuzane ezifana nezinkukhu ezincane ze-hive, i-chalkbrood ne-Braula coeca 'i-flyless wingless'.

Izibonakaliso zesifo: Amaphethini amancane omzimba kanye nama-brood ahlakazekile, ama-cappings ahlotshisiwe futhi ahlotshiswe phansi noma ahlangothini lweseli. Ezinyosi ezindala - izinyosi nezinyosi ezikhukhumezayo nezinwabuzelayo.

I-Bayvarol, ne-Apivar ingasetshenziselwa ukulwa nomdabu we-Varroa eNingizimu Afrika.

I-Tracheal Mites

Izifo ze-Acarine ezinyosi zibangelwa yi-small mite tracheal, i-Acarapis woodi. Lezi zinambuzane zibhoboza i-windpipe ye-bee 'trachea' futhi zondla i-haemolymph, bee 'igazi'.

Izibonakaliso zesifo: Azikho izinkomba ezinokwethenjelwa noma izimpawu zokugulisa izidakamizwa njengoba izimpawu zihlobene nokutheleleka kwe-Nosema nezinye izifo.

Ama-tracheal mites aye ahlotshaniswa namaphiko okuthiwa "K", azinyosi ezinwabuzelayo emhlabathini eduze komhlathi, ongakwazi ukuhamba.

Ama-mites amancane futhi kufanele ahlonishwe kakhulu. Zitholakala ezinombolweni eziphansi kuzo zonke izifundazwe zaseNingizimu Afrika.

I-Wax Moth

Izimpungushe zokugubha ze-wax moth 'Galleria mellonella' zishiya inqwaba yemizila ye-silk futhi zibhubhise yonke inhlanganisela. Amakoloni ezinyosi ezinamandla angakwazi ukulawula inani labantu. Izifuba ezifundeni ezibandayo noma ezindaweni eziphakeme ezingenakukwazi ukubhekana nezidakamizwa ze-wax moth.

Umkhuhlane Wezinyosi

©Xolani90
Izifo ezithathelwana ngegciwane ezinyosi zivame ukuxhunyaniswa nama-Varroa izibungu futhi zingabonisa izimpawu lapho amakoloni ebuthakathaka ngenxa yokucindezeleka.

I-Sacbrood virus 'SBV' isifo sezinyosi esaziwa kakhulu sezinyosi ngezimpawu ezibonakalayo.

Izibonakaliso zesifo: Ingqimba yangaphandle ehambisana ne-larva igcwala uketshezi olucacile, kanti ikhanda elingaphansi kwengcindezi likhanya. I-Sacbrood nayo ingabonwa ngephethini elingavumelani lomzimba onamahlombe ashukile, ahlambulukile futhi aphikisiwe aphethe imiphetho ejijiwe.

Ukutheleleka okukhulu kwezifo ezingapheliyo zokukhubazeka kwezinyosi 'CBPV' kanye nesifo se-bee ukukhubazeka 'ABPV' sizobonisa izinyosi ezikhahlela phansi nasemgodleni. Ukufa kulandela ezinsukwini ezimbalwa.

Izinyosi ezithintekile zibonakala phezulu kwamafreyimu; uncoordinated, ukuthuthumela nokungakwazi ukuhamba - okufana nokutheleleka kwe-Nosema.

Translated by Nsika Khoza