Ivatala

© Louise Brodie
Igama leSayensi: Citrullus Lanatus
Igama elixhaphakileoy: Ivatala
Kucingelwa ukuba imvelaphi yevatala ikwilizwekazi le Afrika kwiindawo ezomileyo kunye nezo zongomanga kangako. Sele ityalwa kwihlabathi lonke liphela ngoku.

Inkcazelo Ngesityalo

Ivatala ikusapho lwe cucurbit ikwayiyo nenxalenye yosapho lwe Cucurbitaceae. Iyanaba emhlabeni xa ikhula. Esi sityalo sivelisa iintyatyambo ezizimazi kunye nezizinkunzi kwisityalo esinye. Iingcambu ze vatala azingeni nzulu kuyaphi emhlaben, ngoko ke kubalulekile ukulawula ukhula uze unkcenkceshele rhoqo kuwo wonke umhlaba onamagqabi kunye neziqu. Ikwanayo nengcambu eyimpompo neyehlela malunga nama 40cm ebunzulwini bomhlaba.
Esi siqhamo umthetho waso sinexolo eliluhlaza ocacileyo kunye nomphakathi obmvu ocacileyo xa sele sivuthiwe. Sele kukho ngoku neevatala ezinamaxolo amnyama, atyheli, namthuthwasi kunye nomphakathi obomvu, tyheli, orenji kunye namhlophe.

Imisebenzi

Ivatala yonwatyelwa ikakhulu xa ityiwa injalo kwaye kungenziwa ngayo ne jusi. Esi siqhamo kunye namaxolo aso sikwasetyenziswa ekwenzeni ijem okanye izinto ezihlala ixesha elide (preserves).

Izidingo Zomhlaba Namalungiselelo

Ivatala idinga isanti emanzi ukuya kweludaka kunye ne pH ephakathi kwe 6 kunye ne 7. Umhlaba kufanele ubenomgangatho olungileyo wezinongo zendalo, ngapha koko oku funakele kongezwe ngemigquba okanye imanyolo okanye izityalo zokugquma. Ezi zityalo kufanele zityalwe kwiveki ezilishumi ukuya kwezi lishumi elinambini phambi kokutyala. Xa sele zikhulile, ezi zityalo zokugquma zingaxutywa nomhlaba phambi kwexesha elilindelelekileyo lokutyala.
Njengomgaqo, thatha iisampuli zomhlaba malunga neeveki ezili 14 phambi komhla wokutyala uze uyokuzihlolisa ukuze kukhangelwe izinongo ezidingekayo. Xa sele iziphumo zohlolo ziphumile, malunga neeveki ezili 12 phambi kokutyala, galela ilime ukuze ulungise ipH kunye ne gypsum ukwenzela icalcium kunye nomgquba okanye imanyolo. Hlakulela konke oku emhlabeni, uxubele kumhlaba ongama 500mm ongaphezulu womhlaba. Oku kunceda nokuhlakula iintsalela zesityalo esigqithileyo kunye nokhula ekusenokuba lukhulile.
Isityalo sokugquma esiluhlaza sisoloko silicebo elilungileyo, njengoko oku kulawula ukhula kwaye songeza nezinongo ezidingekayo emhlabeni. Hlwayela imbewu yesityalo sokugquba ze usebenzise igaba ukuhlakula. Oku kugangatha umhlaba ze kugqume neembewu ngomhlatyana ongephi. Malunga neeveki ezintathu ukuya kwezine ukusuka kwixesha lokutyala, cheba sonke isityalo sokugquma uze usasaze umgquba okanye imanyolo wandule ukuhlakula. Phethula umhlaba malunga nama 400mm ukuya kuma 500 mm ubunzulu.
Usebenzisa idisk harrow gangatha uze usike umhlaba nazo naziphi na iintsalela ezingaphezulu emhlabeni. Enza oku de umhlaba wakho ungabinazigaqa ucoleke. Wuyeke umhlaba uthomalale. Kwiveki yokugqibela phambi kokutyala galela isichumiso saphambi kokuvuna esicetyisiweyo uze ugalele izinto ezifana ne boron kunye ne Zink uze usebenzise idisk harrow ukuhlakula oku kubunzulu obungama 20cm bomhlaba. Oku kusebenza njengenyathelo lokugqibela lokulawula ukhula. Ukuba kufanele kwenziwe imisele, okanye iiplastiki okanye oopayipu bokunkcenkceshela, noku makwenziswe kweli nqanaba. Umhlaba ngoku sele ulungiselelwa ukutyala iimbewu ye vatala okanye izithole.

Imozulu

Iivatala, njengazo zonke izityalo zosapho lwee cucurbit, zithanda iimozulu efudumeleyo kwaye ziyachuma kumaqondo obushushu aphakathi kwe 18°C kunye nama 30°C. Ukukhula kuyema ngxi ukuba amaqondo obushushu athe ehla abangaphantsi kwe 10°C. Esi siqhamo sinochuku kakhulu kwiqabaka, kwaye izityalo zingafa ukuba amaqondo obushushu angaphantsi kwesi 5°C ixesha elide. Amaqondo obushushu aphezulu kakhulu, nangaphaya kwama 35°C nawo ayasonakalisa isityalo kwakunye nesivuno esilindelekileyo.

Iindidi Zesityalo

Kukho phantse ikhulu leendidi ezahlukeneyo zee vatala kunye nemixube emitsha eveliswayo ngalo lonke ixesha. Njengoko amaxesha, iincasa, kunye nabathenfi betshintsha. Ezona ndidi zikhuliswayo eMzantsi Afrika zezi: All Sweet, Crimson Sweet, Super Small kwakunye neendidi ezingenazintanga. Ezinye iindidi ezikhoyo eMzantsi Afrika zezi: South Africa are Sugar sweet, Charleston, Congo, Sugar baby, Moon and Stars, Daytona, Sensei, White wonder, Yellow Petite kunye ne Starlight.
Kungcono ufumane ingcebiso malunga nendidi omawuyityale kwi extension officer esekuhlaleni kunye nabacebisi ngembewu abakufutshane nawe phambi kokuba uthathe isigqibo. Bazakukwazi ukunika ingcebiso eyoyo malunga nyona ndidi iyilungeleyo ingingqi yakho kwakunye nemo zokukhula kwesiqhamo.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana