Ikhabe

© Louise Brodie
Ibizo lesayentsi: Citrullus Lanatus
Ibizo elijwayelekileko: Iikhabe

Ikhabe kuthiwa livela e-Afrika eemfundeni ezomileko nalezo ezipheze zome. Kwanjesi sele litjalwa iphasi loke.

Ukutlhadlhulwa Kwalo

Ikhabe sitjalo esiyi-cucurbit esililunga lomndeni we-Cucurbitaceae. Likhula esivinini esisipara esikhipha amakari arangako arharhaba phasi. Istjalwesi sikhiqiza amathuthumbo anobuili obuduna nobusikazi estjalweni sinye. Ikhabe linemirabhu emikhulu engatjhingeliko njeke kuqakathekile ukobana ulawule ikhula begodu uthelele ngaso soke iskhathi ngombana imirabhu eminengi isehlabathini engaphezulu esemasentimitheni ayi-20.

Imirabhu le ingarhatjheka indawo yoke evalwe makari nesivini. Sinanomrabhu omude oqinileko otjhingela phasi ngamasenthimitha ayi-40. Isthelwesi sineskhumba esihlaza okungeneleleko kanye nokungaphakathi okubomvu, nanyana okusarulana, oku-orentji nanyana okumhlophe.

Ukusetjenziswa Kwalo

Ikhabe lidliwa lifretjhi begodu kwenziwa nangalo ijuzi. Isthelwesi kanye nekelo laso kusetjenziswa ukwenza ijemu kanye nokukheniwa.

Iimfuneko Zehlabathi kanye Nokulungiswa Kwayo

Ikhabe litlhoga ihlabathi eyisanda ene-pH ehlangana kweyi 6 kanye ne-7. Ihlabathi kufanale yakheke ibe selevelini ehle yezakhi nakungasinjalo kufanele zifakwe ngekhompowusti nanyana ngomanyoro nanyana iintjalo ezivala ihlabathi kufanele zipetelwe eemvekeni ezilisumi ukuya kwezilisumi nambili ngaphambi kokutjala. Nasele likhulile, iintjalo ezivala ihlabathi zihlanganiselwa ehlabathini ngaphambi kwesikhathi esilindelweko sokutjala.

Njengomthetho thatha isampuli yehlabathi eemvekeni ezilisumi nane ngaphambi kwelanga lokutjala use amasampuli wehlabathi ayokuhlolwa kanye nemfuneko zezakhi eziphakanyisiwe. Ngemva kokuthola imiphumela yehlolo nokungenziwa ngemva kweemveke eziyisumi nambili ngaphambi kokutjala, faka i-lime ezokulungisa i-pH kanye ne-gypsum efaka i-calcium kanye nekhompowusti nomanyoro. Petela amakhemikhali la ehlabathini, uwahlanganise nehlabathi engaphezulu. Lokhu kwenza bona kupeteleke ngitjho neensalela zentjalo ezasalako kanye nekhula esele limilile kusukela esivunweni esidlulileko.

Iintjalo ezihlaza ezivala ihlabathi zihlala zimbono omuhle ngombana zilawula ikhula begodu zingezelela izinto ezife ehlabathini. Tjala iintjalo ezivala ihlabathi uharigele imbewu ngehariga enamazinyo. Lokhu kwenza bona ihlabathi ibe leveli begodu kuvala imbewu ngehlabathi encani.

Ngemva kweemveke ezintathu ukuya kwezine utjalile, sika iintjalo ezivala ihlabathi urhatjhe ikhompowusti nanyana umayoro uzipetele, uphendule ihlabathi itjhingele ngamamilimitha ayi-400 ukuya ku-500. Levela ihlabathi ngokusebenzisa i-disk harrow sika ihlabathi kanye nezinye iinsalela uphendule ihlabathi engaphezulu ihlukane.Yilise kancani ihlabathi kobana iphefumule.

Ngeveke yokugcina yaphambi kokobana utjale faka isivundisi esifakwa ngaphambi kokuvuna kanye ne-boron ne-Zinc uzihlanganise nehlabathi engaphezulu eyi-20 cm ngokusebenzisa i-disk harrow. Lokhu kulawula ikhula. Nange kunamano wokukapela kwenziwa ngaso iskhathesi. Ihlabathi sele ikulungele ukobana kungatjalwa kiyo ikhabe.

Ubujamo Bezulu

Ikhabe njengazo zoke iintjalo ze-cucurbits, zithanda indawo efuthumeleko begodu zikhula kuhle lokha amazinga womtjhiso ahlangana kwe-18°C kanye ne- 30°C.Ukukhula kwaso kuyajama lokha amazinga womtjhiso ehla aba ngaphasi kwe-10°C begodu aliwuthandi umbethe begodu iintjalo zalo zingafa lokha nange amazinga womtjhiso angaba ngaphasi kwe-5°C iskhathi eside. Amazinga womtjhiso lokha nakaphezulu khulu adlula i-35°C kungamosa iintjalo kanye nesivuno esilindeleko.

Ama-Cultivars

Kunemihlobo ominengi yamakhabe engafika ekhulwini nomunye umhlobo omutjha wamakhabe avangiweko osatlanywako njenganje ngombana ukunambitheka kuyatjhuguluka begodu namarhwebo nawo ayatjhuguluka.

Imihlobo etjwala khulu eSewula Afrika yi-All Sweet, Crimson Sweet, Super Small kanye nomhlobo onganambewu/nanyana iintanga. Eminye imihlobo ekhona eSewula Africa yi-Sugar sweet, Charleston, Congo, Sugar baby, Moon kanye ne-Moon and Stars, Daytona, Sensei, White wonder, Yellow Petite kanye ne-Starlight.

Kodwana kumqondo omuhle ukuthola iseluleko sestjwalesi ku-extension officer yangekhenu kanye nakumyelelesi wezembewu ngaphambi kokobana uthathe isiqunto. Bazokurhona ukukubonisa bona ngimuphi omhlobo westjalo olungele bona ungawutjala endaweni ethize kanye nezimo ezilungele istjalweso.

Translated by Lizzy Shongwe