Kalavatla

© Louise Brodie
Vito ra xi science: Citrullus Lanatus
Vito ra ntolovelo: Watermelon

Kalavatla ri ehleketeleriwa kuva ritumbuluke eka tindzhawu ta Afrika letinga oma na letingana mati yantsongo. Kambe sweswi ri byariwa etikweni hinkwaro.

Nhlamuselo ya Ximilani

Kalavatla i cucurbit naswona riwela ehansi ka ndyangu wa Cucurbitaceae. Ximilani xakona xi mila xinava ehansi kufana na tinhwembe laha xitswalaka muhandzu wa kalavatla. Ximilani lexi xihumesa mabilomu ya xinuna naya xisati eka ximilani xin’we hinkarhi un’we. Kalavatla rina timintsu toka tinga entangi ngopfu naswona swina nkoka swinene kuva ku hlakuriwa nhova laha xinga byariwa kona tani hileswi timintsu ta kona tivaka tiri eka 20 cm ya misava yale henhla.

Timintsu leti tikota kuva tihangalaka na ndzhawu hinkwayo leyinga funengetiwa hi ximilani lexi na matluka ya xona. Xitlhela xiva na rimintsu rin’we lerikulu leri nghenelelaka kuya fika eka 40 cm kuya e hansi ka misava. Kuya hi ntumbuluko nhlonge ya muhandzu lowu iya rihlaza rodzwihala kasi swale ndzeni iswo tshuka loko rivupfile. Manguva lawa kuna makalavatla lawa yangana nhlonge ya ntima na ka xitshopani kasi endzeni ka wona iyo tshuka, xitshopani, orenji nayo basa.

Switirhisiwa

Kalavatla ritala ku dyiwa ritetano naswona rina mati yotsokombela endzeni ka rona. Muhandzu lowu na makamba ya wona switlhela switirhisiwa ku endla jamu.

Swilaveko swa Misava na Ndzulamiso

Kalavatla rilava misava ya sandy loam kuya eka loam leyingana pH yale xikarhi ka 6 na 7. Misava leyi yifanele kuva yiri na swakudya sworinganela kambe leswi swifanele kuya engeteriwa tani hi manyoro kumbe hi swimilani swoengetelela leswi faneleke ku byariwa khume kumbe khume mbirhi wa mavhiki kungase byariwa. Loko se swimirile swimilani leswi swo engetela, swirimeriwa ehansi ka misava leswaku swiya engetelela swakudya emisaveni loko kunga se fika nkarhi lowu languteriweke wobyala.

Tani hi nawu u fanele ku teka swikombiso swa misava kwalomu ka 14 wa mavhiki kunga se fika siku leri languteriweke robyala hirona kutani uswiyisa swiya kambisisiwa xikan’we naku langutiwa loko yiri na swakudya leswi lavekaka. Loko misava yi endliwe vulavisisi naswona yivuyile kwalomu ka 12 wa mavhiki kunga se byariwa, chela lime kuva yita lulamisa pH na gypsum ya calcium xikan’we na manyoro.

Rimela swilo leswi ehansi ka misava, laha kukatsanaka 500 mm ya misava yale henhla. Leswi switlhela swicelela swimilani leswi aswi sele xikan’we na nhova leyingavaka yisale yimila endzhaku ka ntshovelo lowu hundzeke.

Swimilani swoengetelela swa rihlaza switshama swiri rhengu ra kahle kuswibyala tani hileswi swipfunetaka nale kaku susa nhova leyinga lavekiki xikan’we naku engetela swakudya emisaveni. Byala swimilani swoengetelela kufikela loko swiringanela kuva kunghenisiwa matinu ya harrow. Leswi swiendla leswaku ndzhawu yi leveleka naku funengeta mbewu hi misava yoringanela.

Kuringana kwalomu ka mune wamavhiki loko kutava kubyariwile, tsema swimilani leswi kutani unyunyetela manyoro ehenhla ka ndzhawu yaleyo kutani uswirimela ehansi ka misava kuringana 400 kuya eka 500 mm hiku enta. Hiku tirhisa disk harrow levela kutani u fayelela magavadi lawa yanga vaka kona eka misava yale henhla. Tshika misava yitshamiseka.

Eka vhiki rohetelela loko kunga se byariwa, chela manyoro lawa ya cheriwaka loko kunga se tshoveriwa xikan’we na boron na Zinc kutani uswi harika eka misava yale henhla leyi ringanaka 20 cm ya misava yale henhla.

Leswi switlhela switirha tani hiku lawula nhova ko hetelela. Loko kuriku kufanele ku endliwa ridging kumbe kunghenisiwa ti drip lines ta ncheleto kumbe kundlaleriwa hi plastiki, kutani leswi hinkwaswo swifanele ku endliwa hinkarhi walowo. Hinkarhi lowu misava yiva yiringanerile kuva ku byariwa mbewu ya kalavatla kumbe swimilani swakona.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni

Maxelo

Kalavatla, xikan’we na tinxaka letin’wana tati cucurbits, switsakela maxelo lawa ya hisaka naswona swikula kahle eka makufumelelo lawa yanga exikarhi ka 18°C na 30°C. Kukula swiva kahle kambe swikavanyetiwa hiloko mahiselo yava ehansi ka 10°C naswona ya chava ngopfu xirhami na gwitsi hiletlhelo loko mahiselo yava ehansi ka 5°C ya dlaya ximilani. Mahiselo lawa yanga e henhla swinene kutlula 35°C nawona ya onha swinene eka swimilani nakuva na nkavanyeto eka mbuyelo lowu languteriweke.

Swibyariwa

Kuna kufika kwalomu ka dzana wa tinxaka makalavatla laha kuvaka na tintswha leti tumbuluxiwaka himinkarhi yotala loko timakete tiya tirikarhi ti cinca na nantswo wu cinca. Tinxaka leti byariwaka ngopfu laha tikweni ra Afrika Dzonga hi leti All Sweet, Crimson Sweet, Super Small xikanwe na leti pfumalaka tinyungu. Tin’wana nakambe leti kumekaka laha tikweni ra Afrika Dzonga hi leti vange i Sugar sweet, Charleston, Congo, Sugar baby, Moon and Stars, Daytona, Sensei, White wonder, Yellow Petite xikan’we na Starlight.

Kutani ke swikahle kuva u kuma switsundzuxo mayelana na leswi u faneleke ku byala swona kusuka eka extension officer na vatsundzuxi eka swa timbewu loko unga se teka xiboho. Vata kota ku nyika switzundzuxo swakahle eka tinxaka leti faneleke ku byariwa eka ndzhawu yokarhi na swipimelo.