Imbali eya Bumba uMandela Ngokubhalwe ngu Benjamin Pogrund

© Eric Miller

Uqhankqalazo Lwase Sharpeville

Uqhankqalazo olulwa umthetho wama pasi wawuyingxenye yokruthwano lweminyaka yo 1960. Imithetho eyayinyanzelisa ukwahlulwa ngebala yayiphokoka kwi palamente enabantu abamhlophe bodwa kwaye iANC yasokola isilwa lemithetho. Oku akuzange kubeyimpumelelo. iPan-Afrikanist Congress (PAC) yaqulunqwa njengombutho ophikisana ne ANC. Kwaye wahamba phambili ngokulwa ngokuyalela bonke abantu abantsundu ukuba amapasi abo amakhaya baze baye kwisikhululo samapolisa esikufutshane baze bazibanikezele ekubanjweni.

Lomkhankaso waqalwa ngomhla wama 21 Matshi 1960, kwaye iziphumo zabayimbali: Kwezinye indawo jikelele babembalwa abantu abakwenzayo oku, kodwa kwilokishi yase Sharpeville, kufuphi ne Vereeniging, nalapho amawaka abantu abazolileyo baqukana, amapolisa avulela imbumbulu abulala abantu abangama 68.

Oku kwayicaphukisa I ANC yaze yaqala olunye uqhankqalazo emva kweveki. Njengoba kuqala umbhodamo kwilizwe lonke, uhrulumente wavala iANC kunye ne PAC, waze wabhengeza i State of Emergency waze wavalela amawaka engakhange aye noyokuxoxa.

iAll-in African National Action Council

Zonke ezi ziganeko zafakela intsimbi entsha ku Mandela. uTambo yena esiya elubhacweni kwamanye amazwe, uMandela waya esiba yinkokheli ephezulu. Wakhula kwesisi khundla waze wanguye olawulayo kunyaka olandelayo evakalisa nezikhalazo zabantsundu kwi Afrikaner Nationalists zokufuna ukufezekisa amaphupha ayo yokwenza eli irepublic.

Beqwalasela ngakumbi i Boer republics nawayevalwe imilomo yimfazwe yo Mzantsi Afrika ekuqaleni Sentyuri yamashumi amabini. uMandela waseka iAll-in African National Action Council, unobambela ozulisileyo omele iANC engasekho mthethweni. Wacenga uninzi lwabantu abantsundu ukuba luthathe inkxaxheba kule council ngokubiza uqhankqalazo ngoMvulo umhla wama 29 Meyi 1961.

Kwakungekho mthethweni ukuba abasebenzi abantsundu ukuba baqhankqalaze ngoko ke lwabizwa ngokuba yi ‘hlala ekhaya.’ Olu qhankqalazo lwaqala kakuhle e Pietermaritzburg ngo Matshi. Kwakufana ngathi yindibano ye ANC: Isithethi emva kwesithethi kunye nezigqibo esele zigqitywe kwangaphambili ukuze zivunywe sisininzi. Uvuyo lwagcwala iholo yonke xa uMandela wachazwa ngesiquphe njengesithethi. Igama lakhe lalisele lisaziwa, nangona wayengafane abonakali kwiintlanganiso elizweni jikelele kwiminyaka elithoba igqithileyo.

Wayengavunyelwa ngurhulumente ukuba aye kwintlanganiso okanye kwindibano zoluntu, oku kuthetha ukuba wayengenokwazi ukuhlala nabantu abangaphezu kwesibini ngexesha, kwaye kwakufuneka ahlale e Johannesburg qha (Ngaphandle kokuba uya e Pitoli ukuyoku xoxa ityala). Nangona kwakukho lemithetho ingaka, uMandela wayesaququzela kakhulu phakathi embuthweni we ANC.

Iinkokheli Ezivaliweyo Zisebenza ngokuse Mfihlakalweni

Ngethuba uhrulumente eqala ukuvala izinto (banning) ekuqaleni kweminyaka yoo 1950, umbutho we ANC wagqiba kwi polisi ethi ‘Sima ecaleni kweenkokheli zethu’,oku kwenza ukuba iinkokheli zikwazi ukusebenzela ekhusini. Isizathu soku sasivakala kodwa kwakuthetha ukuba ubunkokheli baphuhla, nobabungazange bonyulwe ngokusesikweni kwaye kwahamba kwanzima ukwahlula izikhundla eziphezulu kunezinye. Nokwazi ukuba indima yenkokheli ethile yeyiphi kuba kwakunzima ukuqhakamshelana nabantu. Okubi nokuhle koku kwakungqineka e Pietermaritzburg.

Igama lika Mandela lalisaziwa, kodwa yena umntu engaziwa. Wayesandula kuvunyelwa ukuba angaya kwiintlanganiso ezithile waze waya eqongeni engalindelwanga: Isibhengezo segama lakhe njengesithethi samkelwa ngokuqhwatyelwa izandla, kodwa wayengaziwa. Kwiminyaka elandelayo, kwabangwa ukuba uMandela wenza oku ngasayi kuze kulibaleke kulantlanganiso. Kodwa akazange. Wenza intetho esekiweyo waze wemka kwangoko, ephuma kumnyango wabucala phambi kokuba Onogada bamapolisa ngaphandle kweholo bamazi nokuba ukhona apho. Intlanganiso yaqhubeka ihlela ikhwelo loqhankqalazo.

Iintetho Ezinga Hlelwanga

Umtsalane ka Mandela wawungafane uziveze kwiintetho zakhe ezihleliweyo. Kodwa amandla akhe okukwazi ukufikelela ebantwini nokubenza bathatheke kwakufika xa ethetha engenamaphepha ahleliweyo. Amanye amazwi ayesenokuba ayehleliwe ngaphambili kwaye umntu ofana naye owayesenza iintetho ezininzi ngolwahlobo, ukuphindwa phindwa kwee ngcinga namazi kwakungenokunqandeka. Kodwa ububele nobuntu babuhlala bubonakala rhoqo. Nabani na owakhe wamva ethetha uyakwazi oku. Kanje ngakwisiganeko e Britain embindini weminyaka yoo 1990.

Ngethuba uMandela watyelela njengo Mongameli woMzantsi Afrika omtsha wathetha neqela labantu abangamakhulukhulu kwigadi yekhaya leHigh Commissioner yokuqala emva kwe apartheid, uMendi Msimang. Le nginginya yabantu yayiquka abantu ababuya elubhacweni, ingakumbi abamhlophe; yayingabemi bo Mzantsi Afrika abane talente nababebhacile kuyo yonke leminyaka.

uMandela wathetha nabo ngokubuyela ekhaya, ngendlela ababedingeka ngayo ukuzakwakha uMzantsi Afrika omtsha. Amazwi akhe neengcinga zakhe zazithe ngqo, kunye nokuzigxeka kwakhe okuhlekisayo nowayesele esaziwa ngako. Ndabukela abantu ababendingqongile, wayebabeke entendeni yesandla sakhe. Wathetha kangangemizuzu engamashumi amabini kwaye ndandingathandabuzi ukuba ekugqibeleni wayebhengeze ukuba iinqwelo moya zazibalindile e Heathrow airport ukuba godusa, ngeyaba nguwashiywa nowashiywa ukuya kukhwela.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana