Histori ee bopileng Mandela kaga Benjamin Pogrund

© Eric Miller

Khuduego ya kwa Sharpeville

Megwanto le dikhudueggo tse dineng dile kgatlhanong le melao ya dipasa e ne ele tse dingwe tsa diketsaetsego tsa di-1960. Melao ya go tsweletsa apartheid kwa pele ene e tsholloga ka bontsi go tswa kwa palamenteng ya makgoa mme ANC ene e sokola go ka ba lwanthsa. E ne e sa atlege.

Mokgatlho wa Pan-Africanist Movement PAC o senogile ele mokgatlho oo ikemetseng mme wa oketsa lebelo la kganetso ka go rotloetsa batho ba bantsho go tlogela dipasa tsa bone kwa magaeng mme baye kwa seteisheneng se se gaufi sa mapodisi mme ba itshwarise.

Lenaneo le le simolotswe ka 21 tsa Mopitlwe ka ngwaga wa 1960 mme ditlamorago di ka se tlhole di lebalega. Gore go diragetseng o ka utlwa go go farologaneng go ya ka gore o bolellwa ke mang, fela kwa motse setoropong wa Sharpville, gaufi le Vereeniging, setlhopha sa dikete tsa bagwanti ba kopane ka kagiso go gwanta mme mapodisi a ba thuntsa mme ba bolaya batho bale 68. Seo se tsoseleditse ANC mme le yone ya kua mokgosi wa mogwanto o mongwe mo bekeng ee latelang ditiragalo tseo.

Seo se bile sa tshotsa mmuso wa makgoa mme ba simolola go tlhasela botlhe ba ba neng ba le kgatlhanong le bone mo lefatsheng lotlhe. Ba ntsha taelo ya kganelo mogo ANC le PAC, ba tsoseletsa ‘State of Emergency’ ebe ba tshwara batho bale bantsi kwa ntle ga tsheko kgotsa katlholo.

Kakaretso ya African National Action Council

Diragalo e, e tsentse mafolofolo a mantshwa mogo Mandela. Morago ga gore Oliver Tambo a ye kwa exile, Mandela o bile a simolola go tsaya marapo a boetapele ba ANC. O bile a tiya mo tirong ya gagwe e ntshwa mme a nna matla go kganna maaikutlo a batho bantsho ka maikaelelo a go aga setshaba sa ba-Afrikaner le go bona toro ya bone ya go nna Republic, jaaka bo rrabone mogolo, bogologolo fa ba na le Boer Republic mme ya ba latlhegela ka ntwa ya Afrika Borwa (The South African War) kwa bofellong ba senturi.

Mandela a tlhodile African National Council ya kakaretso, ee neng ele ANC ya mofuta o mongwe. A rotloetsa batho bantsho bale bantsi go e sala morago mme a rulaganya mogwanto wa kgano tiro ka 29 Motsheganong 1961. Go ne go se kafa molaong gore batho ba bantsho ba gane tiro (strike) ka jalo ba bone gole botoka go bitsa thulaganyo eo ‘go nna kwa magaeng’. Thulaganyo ya khuduego e, e simolotswe semolao kwa Pietermartzburg ka kgwedi ya mopitlwe.

E ne e tshwana le fela le kopano ee kgolo ya maloko a ANC, sebui kwa morago ga se sengwe ba gasa dintlha tsa bone tse di tshwanetsweng ke go gatisiswa ke dikhetho tsa batho. Maikutlo a bile a ya kwa godimo thata fa ba bulela Mandela go ema a buwe. Leina la gagwe le ne le itsege thata le fa ene ele gore one a sa bonwe gantsi kwa dikopanong tsa mokgatlho sebaka sa dingwaga dile robongwe. O ne a bone Kganelelo (Intermittent banning), e e neng e moganelela go ka nna teng kwa dikopanong le meletlong.

Seo se raya gore o ne a sa dumellwa go nna mo lefelong le le esi le batho ba bararo le go feta ka palo. E bile o ne a sa dumelelwa ke go tswa ka toropo ya Johannesburg(kwa ntle ga gore ba mo letlelle go ya kwa Pretoria ka nako ya Treason Trial). Le zfa go ntse jalo, Mandela o ne a le mafolofolo ka ditiro tsa gagwe mo ANC

Baetapele ba ba ganeletsweng ba dira ka sephiri

Ga goromente a simolola go otlhaya ka melao ya kganello ka di-1950, ANC e tsere tshwetso ya gore “Re ema le baetapele ba rona”, mme seo se kaile fa baetapele bao batla tswella ka tiro ya bone mo sephiring. Se e ne ele tshwetso entle, mme e bona kgolo ya ketapele ya mokgatlho, mme go ne go sena dikgetho mme seo se bone fa ketapele e letlhegellwa ke makala aa kwa tlase ka gonne go ne gose bonolo go kopantsha batho le ba bangwe.

Bontle le bobe ba seno, bo ne bo bonala kwa Pietermaritzburg. Leina laga Mandela le ne le itsege thata, mme bontsi bane ba sa itse motho kgotsa monga lone. Kganelo ya gagwe ya nako eo ene e satswa go fela mme a dira thagello ya tshoganyetso kwa kopanong eo. Ga ba bitsa leina la gagwe batho opa magofi thata, ebile itumeletse gore jaanong ba ne ba setse ba mo itse.

Dingwaga tse dilatelang bangwe ba ne bare, Mandela o kgatlhile batho thata ka letsatsi leo. Mme ga a ka a dira seo. O fitlhile a buisa, puo ee tlwaelegileng mme ga e yaka ya tsaya sebaka mme a fologa serala pele mapodisi a goromente ba baneng ba eme ka kwantle ga ntlolehalahala ba ka itse go one a le fao.

Dipuiso batho tsa nako nngwe le nngwe

Charisma ya ga Mandela ga enke e tlhagella mo dipuong tsa gagwe gantsi. Mme matla le bokgoni ba gagwe dibonala ga a bua mme a sa kwala fa fatshe pele. Tse a di buang di ka tswa di ikatisitswe, mme fela jaaka mongwe a tshwana le ene ka makgetlho a a lekanang le a gagwe a go bua fa pele ga batho, Go boeletsa mafoko le ditlhaloso goa tlhaloganega. Mme fela botho ba gagwe bo a senoga. Mongwe le mongwe yo a mo utlwileng a buo o itse seno.

Fela jaaka kwa moletlong wa kwa Brithani ka di-1990, ga Mandela a emeng fa pele ga matshwititshwiti a batho kwa tshimwaneng ya lelapa laga High Commisioner Mendi Msimang, fa a sena go nna mopresidente wa Afrika Borwa e ntshwa. Setlhopa seo se ne se na le ba Afrika Borwa ba ba eling kwa mafatsheng a mangwe, bontsi ele makgoa, ba ditalente tse dintse ba ba tsamaile kwa Afrika Borwa mo dingageng tse di fetileng.

Mandela o ne a bua le bone ka go boela kwa gae, le gore ba tle go thusa go aga setshaba sa Afrika Borwa e ntshwa. Mafoko a gagwe a ne a tlhamaletse mme a tswa kwa pelong. Mo gongwe a tshegisa ka ene, mme mo gongwe a dira metlae. Ke bile ka lebella difatlhego tsa batho ba ba neng bale fao. O ne a ba tshotse mo matleng a gagwe.

A buwa sebaka sa metsotso e some a mabedi mme ke ne ke sena pelaelo ya gore kwa bofelelong, ga a kabo a ba boleletse go gona le difofane kwa boemafofane ba Heathrow go ba busetsa kwa gae, ba kabo ba mo setse morago.

Translated by Ikalafeng Maedi