U-Benjamin Pogrund ubika Ngomlando Owabumba uMandela

© Eric Miller

Umtjhagalo we-Sharpeville

Umtjhagalo wokobana abantu abanzima bangafuni ukuphatha amapasa ngeminye eyabanga irararano ngeminyaka yabo-1960. Imithetho yakarhulumende webandlululo wokugandelela abantu abanzima, yayivela epalamende eyayiphethwe makhuwa kwaphela begodu i-ANC yalinga ukubona, izibambe kodwana, khange iphumelele.

Ihlangano ye-Pan African Congress (PAC) ebegade yiziombangi ze-ANC yadlala indima eqakatheke khulu ngokobana ibawe bona boke abantu abanzima batjhiye amapasa wabo emakhaya, bese baya emapolisitetjhi aseduze bayozibophisa. Ijima leli latlanywa ngomhlaka-21 kuNtaka ngonyaka we-1960. Imiphumela yakhona ngile, esiyibona sele imlando namhlanje.

Edorobheni le-Sharpville eduze ne-Vereeniging, lapha iwoma labantu abangaba makhulu bahlangana, amapholisa wona avulela ngeenkule zeengidi bekwahlongakala abantu abama-68. Lokho kwathusa ihlangano ye-ANC yagcina sele imemezele bonyana kubenomtjhagalo ngemva kweveke isehlakalweso senzakele.

Kwasuka ukuguruzela enarheni le urhulumende wavala iinhlanganwezi zombili okuyi-ANC ne-PAC wamemezela ngokomthetho bonyana babotjhwe, nokukulapho urhulumende webandlululo lo, abopha amakhulu wabantu ngaphandle kokusa imilandu yabo ekhotho.

Umkhandlu i-All-in African National Action Council

Izenzo zakarhulumende webandlululo lezi zakha uMandela bonyana aqine khulu. Kwathi lokha u-Tambo nakaya ekudingisweni, uMandela waragela phambili ngokubamdosi phambili nokuba mrholi ekuthenjellwe kuye.

Wakhulela endimeni leyo begwagcina sele abanamandla ukudlula boke ekuseni phambili umnyaka olandelako ukuveza ukuphikisa kwabanzima eenhlosweni ze- Afrikaner Nationalists ukufeza ibhudango ebese linesikhathi khulu lilkhanukwa lokutjhaphulula umphakathi, ukudosa nokulalale emiphakathini wamaBhuru nebegade ithanyelwe yi-South African War ngesikhithi se-twentieth century.

Mandela. UMandela wasungula i-All-in African National Action Council, ebeyifana kancani ne-ANC eyavinjelwa ngomthetho. Wakhulumisana nabantu abanengi eendaweni ezihlukileko bonyana bazibandakanye ngokuthi kubizwe umtjhagala ojayelekileko ngoMvulo ngomhlaka-29 kuMrhayili 1961.

Begade kungekho emthethweni bonyana abasebenzi ababantu abanzima bazibandakanye emtjhagalweni, nje-ke wabizwa ngokuthi yi-'stay-at-home'.

Umtjhagalo ongasisemthethweni wenzeka e-Pietermarisburg ngenyanga kaNtaka. Lokha i-ANC ibambe umhlangano, isikhulumi ngemva kwesikhulumi besiza nemibono wokobanyana bangararulula njani imiraro elethwa ngurhulumende webandlululo begodu bekulindwe bonyana onombono omuhle wokorarurula umraro loyo uzokobanakala ngokobana athole amavodi amanengi.

Ukuthaba kwazala iwolo loke lokhanyana bababikela bonyana isikhulumi selanga lamhlokho kuzokuba nguMandela. Ibizo lakhe belaziwa khulu emihlanganweni ye-ANC enarheni yoke nanyana bekabonwa. kusukela eminyekeni elithoba eyadlulako, besoloko wavalwa umlomo, nekuyindlela emuvimbela bonyana angakhambeli imihlangano nofana imibuthano yemiphakathi, nekuhlathulula bonyana bekungakghonakali bonyana abenabantu abadlula kababili ngaleso isikhathi; begodu begade aphelela kwaphe ejwanasbhege (ngaphandle kukuvunyelwa bonyana aye ePitori ukukhambela i- Treason Trial). Nangaphandle kokuvinjelwikho, uMandela begade amajadu khulu ngaphakathi kwe-ANC.

Abarholi Abavimbeleke ngokoMthetho basebenza Ngokukhukhutha

Lokha urhulumende athoma ukuvimbela ngomthetho abantu ekuthomeni kweminyaka yabo-1950s, ihhlangano ye-ANC besele ithethe isiqunto mayelana nomgomo obizwa nge-“we stand by our leader” okutjho bonyana sijama nabadosi phambili bethu, ngomqopho wokobanyana abadosi phambili abavimbeleke ngomthetho baragele phambili nokusebenza, ngerhorhomejeni.

Isizathu salokhu kukobanyana begade ifanelekaa, kodwana lokho kutjho bonyana ubudosi phambili batlameka, nanyana zange buvele ngokobana kubanjwe amakhetho avulekileko, begodu kancani kancani ubudosi phambili lobu balahlekelwa mamandla ngombana umdosi phambili wakhona bekangakghoni ukuthintana nabantu.

Okuhle nokumbi ngalokho bekubufakazi ebabonakala e-Pietermarisburg, igama likaMandela bebalazi, kodwana yena bangamazi. Ukuvalwa kwakhe umlomo besele kusikhatjhana kuphelelwe sikhathi ngaphambilini begodu wavela bangakalindeli ku-platform, ukumenyezelwa kwegama lakhe njengeskhulumi kwahlangabezwa kuwahlwa kwezandla okukhulu, nanyana bekangaziwa njalo.

Iminyaka eyalandela lapho kwazwakala bonyana uMandela wenze zinto ezikulu ezikarisako ubakare khulu emhlanganweni loyo. Kodwana bekungasi liqiniso.ngombana wase wabeka ikulumo encani wakhamba msinyazana aphuma ngomnyango ongeqadi ngaphambi kobanyana amapholisa abonogada ngaphandle kweholo bangazi nokobanyana bekakhona umhlangano loyo owagandelela bonyana kube nomtjhagalo.

Iinkulumo Ezingakahlelelwa

Iinkulumo ezingakahlelelwa ukuzithemba kukaMandela akusikanengi kusitjengisa eenkulumeni azenzako khulukhu nakazihlelileko. Amandlakhe nekgono lakhe lokufinyelela ebantwini libonakala lokha athula ikulumo engakahlelelwa, namkha engakatlolwa phasi. Iimbongo kungenzeka bonyana zihlelelwe begodu nasiqala bonyana umuntu onjengaye owenza iinkulumo ezinengi njengombana ezenza, ukobanyana aphinde amagama nemikhumbulo kuyinto engeze yakhandeleka.

Kodwana ubuntu bakhe kulapha bubonakala khona. Nanyana ngubani okhe wamuzwa akhuluma uyazi, njengalokha emnyanyeni we-Britain phakathi kweninyaka yabo-1990, lokha uMandela ayokuvakatjhela njengo Mongameli omutjha wenarha yeSewula Africa etja, akhuluma newoma labantu abamakhulu engadini yekhaya laka uKomitjhinara Omkhulu wokuthoma wangaphambi kwebandlululo u-Mendi Msimang. Iwoma leli belifake hlangana abaphalali, abantu abamhlophe abaziinkosi, kanye namaSewula Afrika anekghono ebesele ahlala ngaphetjheya.

UMandela wakhuluma nabo ngendaba yokobanyana babuye ekhaya, nangendlela batlhogakala ngayo bonyana bazokwakha iSewula Africa etja. Amezwi wakhe nemicabango yakhe beyinqophile ahlangene nokunande abanamahlaya nokwakuyindlela yakhe yokukhuluma. Ngaqala bonyana abantu abaseduze kwami bayamukela njani ikulumo le, awakwabonakala bonyana bayamuzwa.

Wakhuluma imizuzu eyaba pheze matjhumi amabili kodwana azange ngibe nokungabaza kobana nanyana angathi ekugcineni kwekulumo le abatjele bonyana naza iimphaphamtjhini zibalindele e-Heathbrow Airport, ukubasa ekhaya, bebazokugijimela ukukhwela msinyana.

Translated by Johannes Nkosinathi