Umlandvo lowashintja Mandela ubhalwe nguBenjamin Pogrund

© Eric Miller

Siteleka saseSharpeville

Letiteleka tekuphikisana nemapasi ekundlula ngiwo bekahamba embili ngabo 1960’s. Imitsetfo lebeyentelwa kucinisa libandlululo beyentiwa ngesivinini, ANC beyisokola kulwa naloko. Ayiphumelelanga. Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) yaba yinhlangano lebangisana neANC, yakhutsata bantfu kutsi bashiye emapasi ekundlula ekhaya bese bayahamba bayotibophisa.

Lona mkhankaso wasungulwa mhlaka 21 kundlovu lenkhulu 1960, umphumela wakhona wenta umlandvo. Elokshini lase Sharpeville, dvutane neVereeniging, lapho tinkhulungwane tebantfu batihlanganela ngekutfula, emaphoyisa adubula abulala bantfu labangemashumi lasitfupha nesiphohlongo. Loku kwaphaphamisa iANC yabita siteleka ngeliviki lelilandzelako.

Njengoba umsindvo wakhula eveni, hulumende wavala iANC kanye nePAC, yatjela bantfu kutsi kune ‘State of Emergency’ yaphopha tinkhulungwane tebantfu.

All in African National Action Council

Lokubekwenteka kwafaka Mandela emandla. Njengoba Tambo bekahamba ayaphesheya kwetilwandle, Mandela wasala kunguye umholi. Wakhula kuleso sikhundla ahola bantfu bebangajabuli ngebuholi bemabhunu. Mandela wasungula iAll-in Afican National Action Council, licembu lelincane lelicishe lifane neANC levaliwe.wakhona kwenta bantfu kutsi bahambe nalelicembu, ngekubita siteleka ngemusombuluko wa29 May 1961.

Bekungavumelekile kutsi basebenti bateleke, ngiko beyibitwa nge ‘stay at home’. Kuvulwa kwalesiteleka kwenteka ePietermaritzburg nga March. Bekuyi ANC lehlangene: tikhulumi talandzelana kanye nemacebo lobekuvumelane ngawo kutsi kutovotelwa. Sicuku sebantfu sajabula Mandela bakabitwa njengesikhulumi.

Ligama lakhe belatiwa, noma bekangajwayeli kubonwa ngoba bekavaliwe kukhuluma emihlanganweni. Bekumele ahlale eJozi akhona kuya ePitoli kuya kuTreason Trial. Noma bekacindzetelwa kangaka Mandela bekabhizi kuANC.

Baholi labamisiwe basebenta ngasense

Hulumende nakacala amisa baholi ngeminyaka yabo 1950s, ANC yeta nemtsetfo lotsi ‘We stand by our leaders’ pheceleti, asibalahli baholi betfu. Loku kwancomwa kakhulu kepha bekusho kutsi buholi bakhula kepha bebangakhoni kuvota futsi bekungakhoni kutsintsana nebantfu kahle. Lokuhle nebubi kwaloku kwabonakala kahle ePietermaritzburg.

Ligama laMandela belatiwa kepha yena angatiwa. Kumiswa kwakhe bekucedza kuphelelwa sikhatsi ngaphambi kwekutsi akhulume: kumenyetelwa njengesikhulumi kwajabulelwa bantfu labanyenti kepha bekangatiwa. Emuva kweminyaka leminyenti kwavetwa kutsi Mandela wenta umehluko lomukhulu kulowo mhlangano. Kepha akusilo liciniso.

Wakhuluma kancane waphuma ngemyango wangemuva angakabonwa bomantjingelane ehholeni. Umhlangano wachubeka bakhuluma ngalesiteleka bekufanele sibe khona.

Tinkhulumo letingalungiselwanga

Kukwati kwenta bantfu bamtsandze bekungabonakali kakhulu etinkhulumeni bekatitfula. Kepha emandla akhe ekwenta bantfu bahimbisane naye bekubonakala nakakhuluma angafundzi phansi.

Kungenteka lamanye emagama lanemandla usuke awalungisele, umuntfu lofana noMandela lotfula tinkhulumo letinyenti kungenteka vele atitfole aphindza emagama.

Kepha kuhlakanipha kwakhe kuyativelela. Umuntfu loke wamuva uyakwati loko, ngengekhulumo yalitfula eBritain emkhatsini wa1990, nakavakashile njengamengameli lomusha wase Ningizimu Afrika. Lesicuku sebantfu besihlanganise bantfu lamahlakaniphile phindze nebelungu labahamba eNingizimu Afrika kadzeni.

Mandela wakhuluma nabo ngekutsi kufanele babuye ekhaya, kutsi bayadzingeka kwakha iNingizimu Afrika. Emagama akhe bekacondzile, futsi ahlekisa njengenjwayelo. Ngabuka bantfu benginabo, ngabona kutsi bavumelana naye. Wakhuluma imizuzu lengemashumi lamabili, angingabati kutsi kube watsi kunendiza lebamele kubayisa ekhaya bebatosukuma bagijima.

Translated by Thandokuhle Motha