Umlando owabumba uMandela ngu Benjamin Pogrund

© Eric Miller

Imibhikisho yase Sharpeville

Imibhikisho eyayimelene nokusetshenziswa kwamapasi yaba ingxenye yomlilo owawuvutha ngesikhathi sama 1960’s. imithetho eyayiqinisa ubandlululo yayilokhu ithululiwe ephalamende labamhlophe bodwa kanti iANC yakuthola kunzima ukumelana nayo. Yayihluleka.

I- Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC) yasungulwa njengeqembu eliphikisayo yabe isiyibeka indlela ngokuthi itshele bonke abantu abamnyama ukuba bawashiye amapasi emakhaya bese beya eziteshini zamaphoyisa ukuyozibika ukuba baboshwe.

Lombhidlango wabekwa ngomhlaka 21 March 1960 kanti imiphumela yalokho isingumlando: ukuphendula kwaba kuncane ikakhulu emalokishini ase Sharpeville, maduze nase Vereeniging lapho abantu abayizinkulungwane bahlangana ngokuthula, amaphoyisa avulela ngenhlamvu abulala abantu abangu 68. Lokho kwangqungquzela kakhulu iANC nayo yamemezela umbhikisho ngesonto elilandelayo.

Ngesikhathi imibhidlango yokumelana nohulumeni iqina ezweni, uhulumeni wabe eseyivala ngokusemthethweni i ANC ne PAC, wamemezela isimo esimanzonzo ezweni kwaphinde kwavalelwa nenqwaba yabantu bangabekwa amacala ukuze bashushiswe.

Konke kwakulele kwi-African National Action Council

Izehlakalo zamqinisa kabusha uNelson Mandela. uTambo waya ekudingisweni phesheya kwezilwandle, uMandela wadlondobala ekubeni umholi okunguyena ophambili. Wakhula kulendima waze waba ngodlondlobele ekubahambiseni bafinyelele kunyaka olandelayo lapho babezobeka ngokumelana kwabantu abamnyama kulokho okwakuhloswe ngabobuzwe bama Afrikana bokuthi bagcwalise iphupho labo ekade belilangazelele lokuba bamemezele izwe njengelibuswa yibo ngokukhetha kwabo bodwa, ukubuyela emuva kokhokho bamabhunu ababe ngama republics abakhukhulwa impi yase Ningizimu Afrika kwiminyaka eminingi eyadlula.

uMandela wabe esesungula umkhandlu omkhulu owawuzothatha izinyathelo i All-in African National Action Council, lona kwabe kungumkhandlu ocashile we ANC eyabe isivaliwe ukusebenza.

Wagqugquzela abaningi abamnyama ukuba bazibandakanye babe yingxenye kulomkhandlu ngokuthi amemezele ukhukhulelangoqo wesiteleka ngomsombuluko Mhlaka 29 May 1961. Kwakungagunyaziwe emthethweni ukuba abasebenzi abamnyama bateleke ngakho bakubiza lokho ngokuthi ‘bazohlala ekhaya’. Imibhikisho yathulwa ngokusemthethweni Emgugundlovu ngo March.

Kwakungumhlangano omkhulu we ANC wezinkulungwane zabalandeli: isikhulumi emva kwesikhulumi nezixazululo ezase zihleliwe ukwethulwa zazizophakanyiswa ngevoti. Ukuthakasa kwagcwala ihholo ngesikhathi sekwethulwa uMandela njengesikhulumi. Igama lakhe lalaziwa, yize noma wayengabonkali kakhulu emihlanganweni eyayizungeza izwe cishe iminyaka eyisishiyagalolunye eyedlule.

Wayekade evinjelwe futhi ebhekwe ngelokhozi, okwakumenza avimbeleke ukuba ayihambele imihlangano noma ukuhlanganyela nje nabantu okujwayelekile, lokhu kwakusho ukuthi akavunyelwe ukuba nabantu abangaphezu kwababili ngesikhathi esisodwa futhi kwakumele agcine eGoli ukuhamba (ngaphandle kwesikhathi avunyelwa ngaso ukuya ePitoli ukuyoqula icala lakhe elikhulu – Treason Trial). Ngale kwakho konke ukuvinjelwa uMandela wayesabambe elikhulu iqhaza ngaphakathi kwi ANC.

Abaholi abavinjelwe basebenza ngokusamfihlo

Ngesikhathi uhulumeni wobandlululo eqinisa isandla sokuvivembela kuqala iminyaka yama 1950’s, iANC yabe isinqumile kwinqubo yayo eyabe ithi ‘Sima nabaholi bethu’, lokhu kwaholela ukuba abaholi ababevinjelwe baqhubeke basebenze ngokuyimfihlo, isizathu salokhu sasicacile futhi sihlonishwa futhi ubuholi bakhula, kodwa babungaveli ukuze buvotelwe ngokuvulelekile futhi kancane bagcina sebufadabele ngoba babungakwazi ukuxhumana nabantu kalula Ubuhle nobubi balokhu bacaca eMgungundlovu.

Igama likaMandela lalaziwa, kodwa umuntu siqu sakhe wayengaziwa. Ukuvinjelwa kwakhe kwasekudlulelwe isikhathi kafushane ngaphambi kokuba ayoziveza kungaziwa ukuthi uyeza esiteji: ukumemezelwa kwegama lakhe njengesikhulumi kwahlokomisa indlu, kodwa futhi wayengaziwa kahle. emva kweminyaka kwathiwa uMandela waziphakamisa kakhulu kuloyomhlangano.

Kodwa akakwenzanga lokho. Wathula inkuluma enohlonze nokho ewabalisisa amagama akhe wabe futhi esephuma ngokuphuthula ngomnyango owawuseceleni ngaphambi kokuba amaphoyisa ayegadile ayeme emnyango kwehholo azi mhlawumbe ukuthi ubekhona. Umhlangano waqhubeka ukugqugquzela ukumemezela umbhikisho.

Izinkulumo ezingahleliwe

Ugazi lukaMandela aluvamile ukuvela uma ethula inkulumo ehleliwe. Kodwa amandla akhe nokukwazi ukufinyelela kubantu kuvela uma ethula inkulumo engahleliwe yabhalwa phansi. Imisho yakhe eminye mhlawumbe yayilungisiwe kodwa uma izokwethulwa ngumuntu osethule izinkulumo eziningi njengaye ukuphindaphinda kwakungeke kuvimbeleke.

Kodwa ubukhaya, nobuntu bakhe babuvela, noma imuphi umuntu oseke wamulalela uyakwazi lokhu ngaye, njengesikhathi lapho ayethula khona inkulumo kwelase Brithani ngeminyaka yama 1990’s lapho aya ukovovakasha esafika esikhundleni sokuba nguMongameli weNinigizimu Afrika entsha wakhuluma kwiqulu labantu abangamakhulu ababesengadini esemzini kaKhomishana wokuqala Omkhulu sekudlule ubandlululo uMendi Msimang.

Iqulu labantu lalihanjelwe ababesekudingisweni phesheya, izikhulu, bonke laba babengabase Ningizimu Afrika abanamathalente kodwa ababelifulathele elakuleli eminyakeni eyadlule. uMandela wakhuluma nabo ethi mababuyele ekhaya nokuthi babedingakala kangakanani ukwakha iNingizimu Afrika entsha. Amazi akho nemicabango yakhe yayiqonde ngqo kumuntu ebeka lapha nalapha amancoko ayemchaza ukuthi ungubani futhi uhambisa kaknjani izinto.

Ngabuka ukuphendula kwabantu abaningi ababeseduzane nami: wayebabeke entendeni yesandla sakhe, wakhuluma cishe amaminithi angamashumi amabili nambili futhi ngangingenakho ukungabaza ukuthi uma wayememezele ukuthi kunenqwaba yezindiza ezilungele ukubathatha eHathrow zibase ekhaya, kwakuzoba nequlu litatazela ligijimela ukuyongena kuzo.

Translated by Nokubonga Guliwe