Matimu lawa nga vumba Mandela by Benjamin Pogrund

© Eric Miller

Ku kombisa kuvilela e Sharpeville

Ku kombisa kuvilela ka mapasi akuri xiphemu xa mpfilu-mpfilu wa malembe yava 1960. Milawu yaku tiyisa xihlawuhlawu ayitikomba swinene kusuka e palamende ya valungu ntsena naswona vandla ra ANC ari lwa na swona.

Arikotangi kuva rihumelela. Vandla ra Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC) rivuye rihumelela tani hi vandla rokokela etlhelo laha ringa lerisa vantima kuva vasiya mapasi emakaya vaya exitichini xa maphorisa kuya tinyiketela leswaku vakhomiwa.

Pfhumba leri risimekiwe hiti 21 March 1960 naswona mbuyelo i matimu: nhlamulo yandhuma yivonakile e lokixini ra Sharpeville, kusuhi na Vereeniging, laha ntshungu worhula wunga hlengeletana, maphorisa yava baleserile laha kunga lova 68 wa vanhu.

Leswi swiendle leswaku vandla ra ANC rikwata laha ringa vika leswaku ku fanele ku kombisiwa kuvilela endzhaku ka vhiki. Loko kukombisa kuvilela loku kurikarhi ku hangalaka na tiko hinkwaro, mfumo wuyirise mavandla ya ANC na PAC, vatisa State of Emergency naku tlhela vapfalela magidigidi wa vanhu vanga tengisiwi.

All-in African National Action Council

Leswi swivuye switikisela Mandela swinene. Laha Tambo angaya e vuchavela whawha entsungeni, Mandela asala ari murhangeri yexe.

U kotile ku tirha tani hi murhangeri laha anga hoxa xandla swinene eka kukombisa ntshikelelo wa vantima lowu awuri kona xikan’we naku kombisa mabunu leswaku vahumelerisa kunavela ka vona kuva tiko riva republic, kunyika nkarhi eka mabunu lava avalava kuvuyiseriwa endzhaku kaloko sweswo switava swihundze na nyimpi ya Afrika Dzonga loko kusungula 20th century.

Mandela u vumbe All-in African National Action Council, vandla nyana leri ari bayizisa onge rifana na leri ari yirisiwile ra ANC. U hlohletele vantima votala leswaku vava swirho eka rona hikuva a vitana xitereka hi musumbhunuko 29 May 1961. Aswingari enawini eka vatirhi va vantima ku tereka, se axivitaniwa 'stay-at-home'.

Kusimekiwa ximfumo ka kukombisa kuvilela loku swive kona e Pietermaritzburg hi March. Akuri nhlengeletano wantolovelo wa mani na mani wa ANC: xivulavuri endzhaku ka xivulavuri leswi aswiri na swintshuxo leswi aswi tekiwa hiku hlawula kunene. Nyanyuko wuvuye wuva kona e holweni loko Mandela atava a tivisiwile tani hi xivulavuri. Vito ra yena ariri na ndhuma swinene, hambi leswi anga voniwi ngopfu etinhlengeletanini etikweni kuringa 9 wa malembe.

Leswi aswi vangiwa hikuva ayirisiwile, leswi aswin’wi sivela leswaku ava xiphemu xa tinhlengeletani leswi aswivula leswaku anga pfumeleriwi kuva na vanhu vo hundza vambirhi hinkarhi wun’we naswona afanele kuva ari e Johannesburg ntsena (handle kaloko a pfumeleriwe kuya e Pretoria ka Treason Trial). Handle ka swipimelo sweswo atirha ngopfu endzeni ka ANC.

Varhangeri lavanga yirisiwa va tirha exihundleni

Loko mfumo waha ya emahlweni wuyirisa varhangeri ekusunguleni ka malembe yava 1950s, vandla ra ANC yiteke xiboho eka policy yaku 'Hi seketela varhangeri va hina', leswinga endla leswaku varhangeri lavanga yirisiwa vatirhela exihundleni.

Xivangelo xa leswi aswinga vuli leswaku vurhangeri bya kula leswi aswinga vuli kuri kufanele kuva na nhlawulo naswona leswi swiendle leswaku vurhangeri byingaha kumeki hiku olova xikan’we naku lahleka ka swivandla na tifayili. Swakahle na swobiha kuve vumbhoni byale Pietermaritzburg. Vito ra Mandela ari tiveka swinene kambe munhu yena anga tiveki.

Kuyirisiwa kayena aswaha ku herisiwa laha anga humelela swinga languteriwanga entshungwini hinkarhi walowo: kutivisiwa ka vito rakwe tani hi xivulavuri swiberiwe mavoko swinene kambe se ativeka. Eka malembe lawa yanga landzela,kuvikiwe leswaku Mandela uvatsakisile swinene eka nhlengeletano liya. Kambe anga endlanga tano.

U fike a vulavula hiku hatlisa no tlhela a hatlisa a nyamalala maphorisa lava avari e handle ka holo vanga se switiva leswaku arikona eka ndzhawu liya. Nhlengeletano wutiyisisile leswaku kutava na kukombisa kuvilela.

Impromptu Speeches

Kukokiwa rinoko hi mbulavulo wa Mandela awutali kutikomba loko arikari abula na ntshungu. Kamba matimba na vuswikoti byakwe byo fikelela vanhu swihumelela loko avulavula anga hlayi helo. Leswi aswivulaka swingava swi kunguhatiwile naswona eka munhu loyi anga vulavula ngopfu entshungwini kufana na yena, swinga tala kuva atshama arikarhi avuyelela marito na miehleketo yakwe.

Kambe vukaya, vumunhu byayena byi humela erivaleni kahle. Un’wani na un’wana loyi anga n’wu twa waswitiva leswi, kufana nale ka ntirho wale Britain exikarhi kava 1990, loko Mandela atava a vhakile eka rendzo tani hi President wa Afrika Dzonga lontshwa laha anga vulavula eka ntshungu wa madzanadzana exirhapeni xale kaya ra High Commissioner wosungula endzhaku ka mfumo wa xihlawuhlawu, Mendi Msimang.

Ntshungu lowu awuri na vanhu vo hambana hambana kusuka eka vanhu lava ava tshama ematikweni yoka yangari ya vona, na tihosi ta valungu, lava akuri ma Afrika Dzonga lava vanga rhurha laha tikweni eka malembe lawa yanga hundza. Mandela u burisane navona hiku vuya ekaya naleswaku ava laveka kufika kwihi leswaku vata pfuna eka ku aka Afrika Dzonga lontshwa. Marito na miehleketo yayena aswikongoma swinene evanhwini laha ari na mafenya hile tlhelo leswi akuri xitayele xayena.

Ndzi langute ehindlela leyi ava hlamurisa xiswona leswaku ava dya kusuka exandleni xakwe. Uvulavule kuringana kwalomuya kava 20 wa timinete naswona andzi tshemba leswaku ekuheteleleni loko alo tivisa leswaku kuna xihahampfhuka xinga yimela kuva teka erivaleni ra swihahampfhuka ra Heathrow, hinkwavo avatava vatsutsumele kona.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni