Bushveld Complex na Vredefort Dome

© David Fleminger

Transvaal Supergroup

Endzhaku kaloko kuhundzile Transvaal Supergroup kufikile Bushveld Complex, leyinga vumbiwa loko nhlayo yikulu ya maribye ya molten rock lawa yanga sukumetiwa kusuka eka Mantle kuya ehenhla kufika eka Transvaal Supergroup. Kunghenisiwa ka maribye lawa kuya eka masalela ya mikhukhula ya Transvaal Supergroup leyinga endliwa hi igneous rock complex tleyi tekaka ndzhawu yo ringana 60 000 square km’s, leyi endlaka leswaku yiva leyikulu swinene emisaveni. Bushveld Complex nayona yina kwalomu ka 80% ya Platinum ya misava hinkwayo. Yay ya hina!

Kambe akungari ntsako na mintlangu ntsena. Kwalomu ka 2 wa mabiliyoni wa malembe lawa yanga hundza, kuvile naku wa ma xiphemu xa ribye lexinga wela emisaveni kwalomu ka 120k’s e dzongeni-vupela dyambu bya Joburg. Ri wile hi matimba swinene lero ribye leri ari fanele kutlakuriwa, kwalomu ka 10km’s ehenhla ka laha ariri kona ekusunguleni. Mbuyelo wakona kuve Vredefort Dome, ku tlumba ka ribye lokukulu swinene lokunga humelela khale loku ku tivekaka emisaveni (ekusunguleni aku pimiwe kufika eka 250km kusuka e matlhelo, hambi leswi xiphemu lexikulu sweswi xinga pfariwa). Ku tlumba ka ribye leri kote kucelela swiphemu swa nsuku, leswi hinkarhi walowo aswiri ekusuhi nale henhla ka misava, leswinga endla leswaku swisivela kubuluka ka mundzuku.

Kambe Vredefort Dome ayi nga tshami yirikarhi yitekiwa tani hi xivumbeko lexinga vangiwa hi kuchayisiwa ka misava naswona, eka malembe lawotala, lavangana vutivi ava tshamela ro humesela ehandle leswi ava tshamba swona leswaku swihumelerile. Hambi swiritano, vulavisisi byintshwa byi kotile kuva byi basisa swilo swotala naku pfumaleka ka ntwisiso eka masungulo ya Dome kusungule kuvuya ku tshamisekisiwa hivutivi bya ti geologists. Hambi leswi ndzinga se twisisaka leswaku kuchayisiwa ka miasava swinga endlisa kuyini dome ematshan’wini ya xirhengele, ndzi fanela ku rhulela xihuku eka vutivi byo hlawuleka byo huma eka lavangana vutivi kutani hi pfumela leswaku himpela masingita lawa hi wona yanga swiendla hinkwaswo leswi.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni

Before the Vredefort Impact

Nkahelo wa mati, carbon dioxide nati gas tin’wana ti phohlile exikarhi ka maribye lawa yanga pandzekela kuta fika e henhla ka misava kutani yihumela ehandle kuya e mapapeni....more

Early Research on the Vredefort Dome

Hiva 1950s, buku leyi vitaniwaka ‘Target: Earth’ yihumesiwile laha vatsari vanga hlamusela leswaku ti dinosaurs tive kona hikwalaho ka kuva kuve na kutlumbiwa loku ka maisava....more

Geological Formation of South Africa

Ku tshembiwa leswaku masalela ya Dominion group ya cheriwile kumbe ku hangalaka kwalomu ka 3.07 wa mabiliyoni wa malembe lawa ya hundzeke, eka nkova lowungava kona loko crust leyinga e hansi ka craton yisungule ku tsanyuka....more

How Meteors Impact Earth

Loko u languta e mapapeni exikarhi ka vusiku lebyingana vunyama, hinkwaswo swilanguteka swihorile....more

Investigation of Vredefort Dome

Endzhaku e Afrika Dzonga, hambi leswi, nhluvuko wa xi sayense awulave kuhi hundza hikwala tlhelo....more

Step by Step Formation of the Vredefort Dome

Loko bolide ya Vredefort yita tshunela kuya chayisa misava, rivilo ra yona ri ehleketeleriwa kuva rive kun’wani ka kwalomuya kale xikarhi ka 40 000 na 270 000 wati kilomitara hi awara....more

The Controversy of Origins of the Vredefort Dome

Swihlawulekisi swoka swinga tolovelekangi swa sayense ya Vredefort Dome switsariwe ehansi hi vativi va sayense kusukela hi malembe yava 1878....more

The Vredefort Impact

2 billion wa malembe lawa yanga hundza, akungari na swimila eka planet, naswona xikombiso xin’we ntsena ya vutomi lexi axiri kona akuri ti bacteria....more

Vredefort and the Gold Fields

Afrika Dzonga i ndzhawu ya nkateko. Hikatekisiwile hi kaya rotshamiseka eka tiko nkulu ra khale, kule swinene na kudzinginika ka misava kumbe volcano....more

Vredefort Dome Shattercones and Shock Metamorphics

E handle ka xirhengele xa Vredefort, kutlumbiwa ka misava loku kusiye swotala endzhaku, swin’wani switsariwe emaribyeni....more