Amalwelwe wama Bacterial Newama Virus

© Vitiec Winetech
I-Crown gall yi-bacteria ejwayeleke khulu emasimini wamadiriyibe begodu yenzeka khulu emasimini wamadribe aseduze komlambo i-Olifants nomlambo ongehla obizwa bona yi-Orange River. Amatshwayo we-bacteria le kubalwa ukubonakala kwama-gals esidindini eduze kwehlabathi. Amagalls asarulana godu anga amlotjhana kanye namabharasi avela eqolweni lomuthi eduze kwe- graft unions. Ngemva kweskhathi I-gall ijika ibe nzotho ngombala.

Amalwelwe ama-virus atholakala esiphandeni esinye nesinye salapha kwenziwa khona iwayini, nokuvela kwawo kuya ngobujamo be-virus esitjalweni. Iintjalo zingenziwa bona zingangenwa yi-virus ngokuzelapha ngokuzitjhisa/heat treatment. Ukulawulwa kwekhemikhali kwama-virus la akukghonakali, kodwana kuyatlhogeka ukulawuleni i-mealy bug estjalweni samagribe ngombana ikghatjha ubulwelwe.

Ubulwelwe Bemasimini Wamadribe Obubizwa-Leafroll

Ubulwelwe obobizwa bona yi-Grapevine leafroll disease busetjenziswa khulu eentjalweni ezibomvu zamadiriyibe i-Cabernet, Merlot kanye ne-Chardonnay,kodwana ezimhlophe ezahlukahlukeneko ekuyi-Cape Riesling kanye ne-Semillon nazo zivamise ukubanjwa bulwelwe be-leafroll. Pheze akunamatjhwayo abonakalako ngesikhathi sentwasahlobo, kodwana kusukela ngoSinyikhaba amakari westjalwesi athoma abe anga, ababomvu ngombala athome nokugobekela phasi. Nanyana kunjalo imivimbo yazo isala ihlaza ngombala.

Entjalweni ezimhlophe zamagribe amatjhwayo waso akabonakali kuhle, kodwana amablari waso nawo agobekela phasi. Kubalulekile ukulawula iintjhontjhwani kanye nama- mealy bugs ngombana zingunobangela wokurhatjheka kobulwelwe be-leafroll virus emasimini wamadribe. Kufanelwe bona kwenziwe I-buffer zone hlangana namasimu wamadiriyibe asele abanjwe bulwelwelobu nalayo angakabi ukubanjwa bulwelobu. Begodu amathulusi nezinye iinsetjenziswa kufanele zibulawe amagciwani begodu zihlanjwe lokha nazifuduselwa kwenye isimu, kuya kwenye.

Ubulwelwe be-Shiraz

I-Shiraz bulwelwe obenzeka emadiriyibeni amhlobo we-Merlot, Shiraz, Malbec kanye nawomhlobo we-Gamay begodu ibangelwa yi-virus yemasimini wamadiriyibe/grapevine virus A. Ubulwelobu busengakabonwa e-Viognier. Bubonakala ngamadiriyibe anga asaraba begodu angathi ayawa, nangavuthwa woke ngeskhathi sinye ngombana la abanjwe bulwelwelobu avamise ukuthatha isikhathi ukuvuthwa. Ihlanganisela yamadiriyibe iba yincani kunaleyo ejwayelekileko nanyana ayibi khona.

Amakari kanye nemivimbo wayo abanombala ophephuli begodu amakari wayo awa lada. Ayikho ipengu yobulwelobu begodu amadiriyibe abanjwe bulwelwelobu avamise ukufa eminyakeni emithathu kuya kwemihlanu ngemva kokuba naso. Sirhatjheka ngokwemvelo sizale isimu yoke, kodwana amadribe i-grapevine mealy bug inomthelela ekuburhatjheni ubulwelwe be-Shiraz lobu. Iimfundo zithole bona ubulwelwobu bungakhandelwa nge-treatment yokubutjhisa esitjalweni samambala lapha buthome khona. Amadribe abanjwe bulwelwobu ayasuswa atjhiswe.

Amanye Amalwelwe

Kunamanye amalwelwe amanengi, obunye bawo obutholwe mvanjesi esitjwalweni samadribe bubizwa bona bulwelwe be-Aster Yellows. I-Chardonnay khulukhulu ngombana ibuthakathaka ibanjwa msinya bulwelobu. Amatjhwayo we-Aster Yellows’ kubalwa amakari atjhwabeneko ekuthomeni kwesikhathi sonyaka sokutjala amadiribe. Amakari wamdribe amhlophe aphenduka abesarulana ngombala kuthi amadribe wombala obomvu amakari wakhona aphenduke abebomvu ngombala.

Amakari adege ajwayelekile, begodu agobeke aqale naphasi. Lobu bulwelwe obuyingozi kwamambala begodu ngetjhudu, benzeka endaweni ezimbalwa kwaphela, njeke kubalulekile ukubika e-VinPro lokha bona amatjhwayo angakajwayeleki la emasimini wamadribe. Iimfundo sitjengisa bona iintjalo zamadribe zingatheleleka nge-leafhopper. Amakari angene bulwelobu kufanele asuswe ngemva kwesikhathi sonyaka sokutjala amadiribe, isimu yoke yamadribe isuswe nayo kanye nemirabhu yayo.

Translated by Lizzy Shongwe