Ukusungula Isivini

© Louise Brodie
iSikhathi esilindelekile sokuphila kwesivini iminyaka engaphezu kwamashumi amabili ngakho kubalulekile ukuthi ubuze kosolwazi uma udinga isaluleko. Loluhla olulandelayo kumele lucatshangwe ngaphambi kokuba kusungulwe isivini esisha:

Uhlobo lwezitshalo zembewu ye-cultivar olukhona manje kwipulazi: imaphi ama cultivar futhi mangaki akhuliswayo njengamanje.
Kuhloswe ukuthi isivini esisha sikhiqize amathani amangaki.
Kungabe isikhathi sokuvuthwa sezithalo ezitsha zembewu ye-cultivar siyaphambana naleso esikhona njengamanje nasosonke isilimo.
Iziphi ezinye izitshalo zemvelo ezitshaliwe kulesisikhathi.
Akhona yini amanzi.
Isibalo semishini ezodingeka.
Ulwazi ngomhlabathi wakuleyondawo ekhethekile kanye nokuthi isivini sizokwazi ukutshaleka kuleyondawo uma kubhekwa indawo nomgqingqiliza.
Ukulawula izinhlobo zomhlabathi, ukumunceka kwamanzi (uma kunesidingo) kanti nokulawula ulungise amakhemikhali nezinhlayiyazemvelo ezisemhlabathi kumele kubhekwe.
Indela yokufakwa kwembewu ye cultivar nohlobo lwewayini oluzokhiqizwa nokuthi.
luzokhiqizelwa luphi uhlobo lwemakethe. Ukukhetha i-cultivar (imbewu ehlanganiswa nenye ukwakha olunye uhlobo lwesitshalo) ne clone (ozokukhwakha) nakho kumele kucatshangwe kanye neziphunzi zezimpande ezifanele okumele zikwazi ukumelana nohlobo limhlabathi.

Kufanele kuphinde kuqashelisiswe ngokuhlangene nendawo ezungeze indawo okuzotshalwa kuyo iziphunzi zezimpande: ububanzi bokutshala, ukungqangqana kwesiphunzi sempande kanye nokuthi zizobhekaphi, ubude bemigqa yomvini kanye nohlobo lwesiheliso sothango esizosetshenziswa.

Ukulungela Kwendawo

Kumele ubheke ukuthi kungabe umhlabathi ukulungele yini – ngabe uwafanele yini amagilebhisi okukhiqiza iwayini noma kumele kucasthangwe esinye isilimo esingatshalwa kuleyondawo? Izindawo ezingase zikhahlamezwe ukukhithika kumele zivikwe, isibonelo, izindawo ezigcwele amanzi, ezimanzi, umhlabathi osugcwele amanzi ngokwadlulele nawo kumele uvikwe noma umomwe womiswe kuqala. Ezinye izindawo, isibonelo imigingqiliza iyaye itholwe umoya kakhulu nokuzokwenza ukukhula kwesivini kubenzima. Imigigqiliza iyaphola uma kusehlobo ngaphezu ngisho komhlabathi ongasemfuleni.

Imigingqliza eseNyakatho neNxingizimu Afrika ifudumele futhi isetshenziselwa ama cultivar anjenge Cabernet, Pinotage, Shiraz kanye namanye ama cultivar amhlophe anje nge Chenin Blanc kanye ne Chardonnay. Imigigqiliza eseNingizimu yona iyabanda futhi ama-cultivar akwaziyo ukungena kanhle kulendawo ngama cultivar amhlophe anjenge Sauvignon Blanc ne Riesling kanye name cultivars abomvu njenge Merlot kanye Pinot Noir. Isihlabathi esivundile sasemhlabathini sigenza isivini sikhule ngamandla kodwa amagilebhisi azosheshe abole ngamandla. Ama cultivar abomvu angeke akhiphe umkhiqizo obomvu ngokwaneke uma kunalezizimo.

Ukungqanganisa Imigqa

Ububanzi bomugqa kushiwo kakhulu ukuthi umhaba usetshenziselwani, kodwa futhi, nogandaganda nokunye okwenziwayo njengokufuthuwa kwempahla ezosetshenziswa. Isikhala esihlukanise imigqa kwisivini ngokujwayelekile sisuka phakathi kka 2.1m kuya ku 3.0m kodwa siba umngcingo ukwenzela ukusebezinsa kahle umhlabathi ngokwanele. Ngakhoke lokhu kukhuphula izinga lomkhiqizo nge hekhithari umphumela walokho ukuzuza inani eliphezulu nge hekhithari.

Ububanzi bomugqa buncike ekutheni, nokhoke, uluphi uhlobo lwesiheliso sothango futhi uluphi uhlobo lokuthena oluzosethenziswa ngoba lokho kuzochaza ukuthi bufanele bubengakanani ububanzi bekhanophi yezinti ezosetshenziswa. Uma kusetshenziswa imishini yokuvuna, kumele kuqikelelwe ukuthi ubanzi kangakanani umshini. Lemishini mikhulu kakhuku futhi ngasekugcineni kwemigqa isikhala sokuphenduka akumele sisondele ku 6-7 wamamitha.

Isikhala phakathi Komvini

Ibanga eliphakathi kwemivini lichazwa kakhulu uhlobo lomhlabatho kanye nembewu ye cultivar ehlanganiswe neziphunzi zezimpande, ngamanye amagama kuzokhiqizwa amawayini anhlobonhlobo. Ngesikhathi umhlabathi uvunde kakhulu kumele neziphunzi zezimpande nazo zingqangqane kakhulu. Okuphambana nalokhu futhi kumele kwenziwe: uma uhlabathi ungavundile noma uluqwathu, kumele iziphunzi zezimpande zisondalaniswe eduze nesinye.

Ukumiswa Kwemigqa kanye nobude bayo

Umkhombandlela wemigqa ucaciswa kakhulu indawo kanye nendawo engumgigqiliza kanye nomoya ophakamayo, ilanga nohlobo lembewu ehlanganisiswe i-cultivar. Umthelela womoya onamadla nomkhombandlela womoya nakho kudlala indima enkulu. Ukuphephetha komoya esivinini kungomisa amaqabunga ngokusheha kunciphise nezifo ezidalwa ukukhunta.

Kanti futhi kunomthelela omukhulu wokubandisa amagilebhisi futhi abe mancane amathuba okucekelwa phansi ngomoya. Umoya ophephetha ngamadla emaceleni ungalimaza amakhaba asahluma maduze nenkanthi yonyaka ngaphambi kokuba aboshelwe ngendlela yokuheliswa ngothango.

Ukuvuleleka elangeni nakwimigigqiliza okubanga ukukhukhuleka kwamanzi nakho lokhu kunendima ekuthi imigqa izomiswa ndlelani uma sekusungulwa isivini esisha. Kumele ubonene nosebhizinisini lokuqashelwa kwamagilebhisi oyi – viticulturist ukuthola ukuthi uzoyibeka kanjani imigqa uma ususungula isivini esisha. Umkhuba omusha owenziwayo ukubeka imigqa emide kakhulu ngoba akubizi kakhulu ukukwenza nezimoto zithatha isikhathi esifushane ukujikeleza. Umugqa ophelele kumele ucishe ube ngu 250 wamamitha.

Translated by Nsika Khoza