Ukukhomba Impisi Enamabala

©Robert Hofmeyr
Impisi enamabala (Crocuta crocuta) iyona enkulu kunazo zonke emndenini wezimpisi. Zibukeka njengezinja ezinkulu kakhulu, ngokuvamile ziba nobude obuyi-120 cm kuya ku-180 cm kanti isisindo sa-60 kuya ku-80 kg. Izimpisi ezinobala zinesikhumba esimhlophe esiya kumbala ophuzi, onamaqhwa angcolile namabala amaningi ansundu aphela ngokuhamba kwesikhathi.

Izindlebe zempisi ezithengisiwe zizungezile futhi azifani njengezindlebe zempisi ensundu, futhi imilenze yazo yangaphambili inomude kunemilenze yabo yangemuva, okwenza ukuba amahlombe azo aphakeme kunamqolo azo. Zibizwa nangokuthi izimpisi ezihlekayo, ngenxa yezingcingo zazo zokugwedla ngokuvamile ezenziwa lapho zihlaselwa izilwane.

Impisi ebonakalayo yowesifazane inama-testosterone angaphezu kwamatshumi amathathu kunamadoda, ngakho-ke ayi-10% emikhulu kunabesilisa, inkulu kakhulu futhi inamandla kulawo maqembu. Banobukhulu obuningi obukhulu obuphezulu bomndeni kanye nenzalo yabesifazane abayithatha umndeni lapho i-alpha yesifazane ifa. Kubonakala sengathi kunezimo ezingavamile lapho owesilisa ezohola khona umndeni.

Abesilisa abasezingeni eliphansi bangase bahlukane kusuka eqenjini ukuze bakhe amaqembu abo. Ukuze uvimbele ukungena, izingane eziningi ziyathuthela kwamanye amaqembu. Ubuhlobo bezenhlalakahle nabanye abesilisa bubaluleke kakhulu kunokwesilisa, ngakho-ke kudingeka badale ukwethembeka okusha lapho beya kwenye inhlanga. Kunzima ukutshela abantu besilisa nabesifazane, ngoba izitho zangasese zabesifazane zilingisa isimo sesilisa. AmaHyenas amacembe athile ane-fatse-scrotum kanye ne-erectile clitoris, ebonakala njenge-penis yamadoda. Indlela engavamile ye-clitoris yabesifazane iyinkimbinkimbi yokuxubana, ngoba le ngxenye iyaba yinkimbinkimbi lapho ivula.

Ngakho-ke abesilisa kufanele bahlale bezolile futhi benembile ngesikhathi senqubo yokubuthana, okungenzeka futhi ukuthi kungani amadoda angamaqhawe athola impumelelo enkulu ekuthandeni abesifazane. AmaHyenas asetshenziselwa ukuvuthwa ngokocansi avela eminyakeni engaba nemithathu ubudala, ngokuzalana kuqhutshwa unyaka wonke. I-puppy eyodwa kuya kwezine ivame ukuzalwa emva kwesikhathi sokutholwa kwezinsuku ezingu-110. Ama-cubs azalwe ngendoda engamanga, okwenza kube ngamaphesenti angaba ngu-60% abhekene nokuphuma kwawo.

Ubukhulu obuncane be-canal bridge buvame ukubulala ikakhulukazi omama bokuqala. Amantombazane afuna umgodla wokubeletha ngaphambi nje kokubeletha futhi ama-cubs adluliselwa emgodini womphakathi cishe amasonto amabili ngemuva kokuzalwa. Ama-cubs azalwa ngamehlo avulekile futhi ancelisa kumama aze abe nezinyanga ezingu-12 kuya kwezingu-18 ubudala. Bazoqala ukudlala inyama bebulewe eduze komgodla kusuka ezinyangeni ezinhlanu ubudala. Ngokuvamile basala emgodini nomntwana lapho umama ezingela.

Indlela Yokubulala Nokudla

©Robert Hofmeyr
Abantu babevame ukucabanga ukuthi ama-hyenta ayimbala ayengama-scavengers abesaba, kodwa emazweni athile aseMpumalanga Afrika akholelwa ukuthi ayengabanikazi bawo futhi aphethwe yizintatheli ngenxa yamaqhinga abo okuzingela kanye nemvelo yobusika. Ngokusho kocwaningo lukaGus Mills, kutholakale ukuthi amafiya atholakale azingela kakhulu kunezindawo ezithile, ngamaphakheji afuna ukuphanga ngamakhilomitha ngaphambi kokuba izilwane ziqede ukukhathala. Ezinye izifundo ziqinisekisile ukuthi izingonyama, kwezinye izindawo, zingase zikhanye ngisho nakwezinye ama-hyenas kunezinye izindlela. Bangase bazingele ngabanye noma emaphaketheni. Ukudla kwezingqimba ze-hyena ezivela ezinambuzane kuya ezilwaneni ezinkulu zemidlalo.

Awufuni ukuhlambalaza ngamafiya atholile. Zinezinhlanzi ezinamandla kunazo zonke ngokulingana nobukhulu bomzimba bazo noma yiziphi ezinye izilwanyana ezincelisayo, ezivumela ukuba ziwaphule amathambo ngisho nama-giraffes. Imfuyo ingabhekwa, kodwa lokhu kuyinto engavamile, ngoba ama-hyen ebalahlekile avame ukuvalelwa ezindaweni zokulondoloza eNingizimu Afrika. Izinkomo, izimvu nezimbuzi yizilwane eziyinhloko emacaleni ambalwa lapho imfuyo ihlose khona. Nokho, abalimi kufanele bakhumbule ukuthi ukubona nje ukudla kwe-hyena emzimbeni akusho ukuthi kubulale isilwane.

Ngokombiko we-Predation Management, bazoqala ukudla inyama enqeni nasezindaweni ezilinganayo, lapho bedla isidumbu esisemtholampilo, bese bevula isisu esiswini bese bedonsa izitho ezithambile. Uma isisu, udonga lwayo kanye nokuqukethwe kwawo kudliwe, i-hyena izodla amaphaphu, izibeletho nesisu somlenze. Isidumbu asihambisani futhi izingcezu zihanjiswa ngokuthula, uma isidumbu sidliwe. Abachitheki ukudla, ngakho-ke ngokuvamile kudla okuncane kokudla kwabo kanye nepakethe lenziwa nalo.

Ukuphathwa

©Nigel Dennis
Impisi ezinobala zibhalwe phansi njengezilwane ezisengozini encwadini - South Africa Red Data Book for Mammals, ngakho abalimi kufanele baxoxe neziphathimandla ezifanele mayelana nezimvume ezidingekayo zokubamba lezi zilwane. Ngokusho kwe-Predation Management Manual ziqala ngokudla inyama yaseqolo nasemuva uma zisidla isidumbu sesilwane esiphelele,bese zivula isisu zidle inyama ethambile. Uma isisu kanye nokuqukethwe kwaso kudliwe, impisi izodla amaphaphu, izibeletho nomlenze.

Isidumbu siyehlukaniswa futhi izingcezu zihanjiswakude ukuyodliwa ngokuthula, uma isidumbu sidliwe. Azichithii ukudla, ngakho-ke ngokuvamile insalela zokudla okuncane ngeke zibonwe. Ngokusho kwe-Predation Management Manual isithiyo sengwe esibhekene nesidumbu semvu singasetshenziselwa ukuthiya impisi enamabala. Ucingo kagesi lungasiza ukuvimba impisi ezindaweni zasemapulazini, kuyilapho isibaya, abelusi kanye nabonogada abaqaphayo kungasiza ekuvikeleni imfuyo ekudliweni.

Translated by Nsika Khoza