Ukuchonga kwe Ngcukacheya

©Robert Hofmeyr
Ingcukacheya (Crocuta Crocuta) lelona hlobo likhulu kusapho lwe ngcuka. Zinenkangeleko enkulu, oku kwezi nja ezinkulu kakhulu, ubude ngesiqhelo ngama 120 cm ukuyo kuma kuma 180 cm nobunzima obungama 60 kg ukuya ku 80 kg. Iingcukacheya ke zinesikhumba esinoboya obuncinci, obumbala ophantse wamhlope, ukuya kumbala omdaka-tyheli, simdaka ke isikhumba kwaye simdaka nangombala. Inamabala bala athe gqaba-gqaba amdaka ngombala athi ke aye ephela xa ikhula ngokweminyaka. Inenwele ezimfutshane eziye zime apha emqolo.

Ingcukacheya zinendlebe ezisisangqa, kwaye azitsolwanga njengendlebe ze Ngqawane (Brown Hyena), kwaye imilenze yayo yangaphambili mide kunemilenze yangemva, oku kwenza amagxalaba abe phezulwana kunentsula zayo. Zithi zaziwe ke njenge ngcuka ezihlekayo, kuba ziye zigigitheke okanye zivakale zihleka xa zicaphukile okanye zileqa ezinye izilwanyana.

Imazi zohlobo lwengqawa emabala-bala zinomdla wotsantsi ophinda phindwe kathathu ngaphezulu kwi nkunzi, zona ziye zibenkulu nge shumi lepesenti (10%) xa kuqathaniswa neenkunzi, kwaye zezona zinolaka kwaye zithanda ukulawula ezinye ezi zalana nazo. Zino hlobo lokuzalana olunzinyana, apho imazi iye ithabathe indawo phakathi kwezinye ezizalana nazo xa imazi endala ephetheyo isweleka. Kodwa ke kucaca okokuba zibakhona iimeko ezizodwa apho inkunzi iye iphathe ezinye kwesosizalelwana.

Ezinye iimazi ezikwizinga eliphantsi ziye ziphume kwamanye amaqela ziziqalele izizalelwana zazo ezizodwa. Ukuthintela ukumithisana, inkoliso yoonyana iye ihambe iyokuhlala nezinye iinzalelwana. Uhambiswano lobuhlobo nezinye iinkunzi lubaluleke ngaphezulu ngobukhulu be nkunzi, yiyo lonto kufuneka zakhe ubuhlobo xa zihamba ziyokuhlala nenye inzalelwana.

Kubanzima ukohlula iinkunzi kwii mazi, kuba lomhlaba ungezantsi kwi mazi uphantse wafana nowee nkunzi ngobume. Iimazi ngcukacheya zine (pseudo-scrotum) etyebileyo kunye nokhozo oluthi lwenze umdla wocantsi.kwaye lufana nomhlaba ongezantsi wokuchama we nkunzi.

Lendlela lwenziwe ngayo ukhozo lwe mazilwenza kubenzima ukudibana ngocantsi kuba xa sele ilungele ukudibana nenkunzi ngocantsi liyahlaba. Iinkunzi ke kufuneka zithobe umoya zizimisele xa zidibana ngocantsi nemazi, yiyo lonto iinkunzi ezingangxamiyo zibane mpumelelo ekudibaneni nee mazi nokumithisa.

Iingcukacheya ziye zilungele ucantsi kwiminyaka emithathu ubudala, zizale ke rhoqo unyaka wonke. Zizala intshontsho elinye ukuya kwamane emveni kokumitha iintsuku ezingama 110 wentsuku. Amantshontsho azalwa ngalomfuziselo womhlaba wocantsi wee nkunzi, ama 60% wamantshontsho aye afe ngexesha esazalwa ngenxa yokufuthamiseleka. Ubuncinci bendawo yokuzala buye benze amantshontsho amaninzi afe, ingakumbi kwezisentsha kubumama.

Iimazi ziye zikhangele indawo yokuzalela phambi kokuba zizale ze amantsontsho athathwe asiwe khona emveni kweveki ezimbini zizele.amantshontsho azalwa sele evule amehlo ancance kwi mazi ze abebubudala benyanga ezilishumi elinambini (12) ukuya kwishumi elinesibhozo (18). Ziqala ukutya inyama yenyamakazi ezibuleweyo kufuphi nendawo ezihlala kuyo ukususela kubudala benyanga ezintlanu. Ziye zishiywe kulondawo nalowo uzinakekelayo logama umama ezingela.

Indlela Yokubulala Nokuzityisa

©Robert Hofmeyr
Abantu babecinga okokuba iingcukacheya zingamagwala atya ezinye iinyamakazi, kodwa kumazwe ase Mpuma Afrika kukholeleka okokuba ziye zibenabanikazi bazo kwaye zikhwelwa ngabathakathi kuba zinamacebo nendlela ethile yokuzingela nokuthanda ukuhamba ngobusuku.

Ngoko phando olwenziwe ngu Gus Mills, kuye kwafunyaniswa kokuba iingcukacheya zizingela ngaphezulu kwezinye izilwanyana ezitya iinyamakazi, negquba elileqa amaxhoba iikhilomitha phambi kokuba ixhoba liwe phantsi ngenxa yokudinwa. Ezinye izifundo zingqina okokuba iingonyama, kwezinye iindawo ziye zitye iingcukacheya ngaphezulu kokubaiingcukacheya zitya zona. Zingazingela zizodwa okanye ziliqela.

Ukutya kwe ngcukacheya kusukela kwizi nambuzane ukuya kwiinyamakazi zasendle ezinkulu. Awufuni ke ukudlalela kwi ngcukacheya. Zezona zinamazinyo omelele kuzo zonke izilwanyane ezizitho zine, naxa kuqathaniswa nemizimba yazo. Oku kwenza kubelula ukuhlafuna amathambo nkqu nawe ndlulamthi.

Iimfuyo ke ingabase mngciphekweni, kodwa akuvamanga ukwenzeka oku, kuba iingcukacheya ziye zihlale kwindawo eziphantsi kolawulo eMzantsi Afrika. iinkomo, iigusha, kunye neebhokhwe zezona zisemgciphekweni kwezo meko zimbalwa apho imfuyo ithi ibelixhoba. Amafama kufuneka akhumbule okokuba ukubona ingcukacheya isidla isilwanyana esifileyo akuthethi okokokuba eso silwanyana sibulewe yiyo.

Ngokubhalwe kwi Predation Management Manual, zikuqala zitye inyama ekwizihlunu nalapha kwintsula, xa zisitya umzimba wesilwanyama osapheleleyo, ze zivule amazantsi esisu zikhuphe onke amalungu omzimba angaphakathi athambileyo. Kuthi xa isisu, udonga lwaso kunye noko kungaphakathi sele kutyiwe, itya imiphunga, imisipha esemazantsi esisu kunye nasemilenzeni.

Umzimba wesilwanya esifileyo uyakhutshwa ze iintwana ntwana zikhutshwe ukuze zityiwe ngoxolo, xasele imisipha ityiwe. Azidlali ke ngokutya iingcukacheya, akushiyeki nomkhondo xa zigqibile ukutya.

Ulawulo

©Nigel Dennis
Iingcukacheya njenge zilwanyama eziphantse zase mngciphekweni wokuphela ngokwe South African Red Data Book for Mammals, amafama kufuneka adibane nabasemagunyeni abakufuphi malunga nokufumana iimpepha mvume zokubamba ezizilwanyana.

Ngokwe Predation Management Manual, ziqale zitye inyama indlwana zokubambisa ingwe emabala-mabala ngenyama yegusha efileyo ingasetyenziswa ukubambisa ingcukacheya ukuze zisuswe. Ucingo lombane lunganceda ukugcina ingcukacheya kude nefama, logama isibaya semfuyo kunye nabelusi nezilwanyana ezigada ezinye zinganceda ukuthintela imfuyo ingadliwa.

Translated by Zikhona Plaatjie