Ukutlhadlhulwa Kwepisi Enamatjhatjhazi

©Robert Hofmeyr
Ipisi (Crocuta crocuta) ngekulu kunazo zoke zomndeni wempisi. Ziqaleka zizikulu zizinja ezakheke zabazikulu ezinobude obuyi-120 cm ukuya ku-180 cm begodu zinobudisi obuyi-60 kg ukuya ku-80 kg. Ama-hyena anamabalabala anombala onga umhlophe ukuya kosarulana, nanyana osamlotha okusilaphazekileko namatjhatjhazi anzotho okungeneleleko nanyana anga ayaphela lokha nayiluphalako. Inoboya obufitjhani obujame rwe emgogodlheni.

Iimpisi enamatjhatjhazi begodu iinendlebe ezirondo ezingakaqiji njengezendlebe zepisi enzotho begodu iinyawo zazo zangaphambili zide kunalezo zangemva ekurholela ekutheni amahlombe wazo abephezulu kunomzimba wangaphambili. Zibizwa kobana zimpisi ezihlekako, ngebanga lokobana lokha nazihlasela islwane zenza itjhada inga ziyahleka.

Ezisikazi zinama-testorene amanengi ukudlula eziduna, njeke zikulu nge-10% kuneziduna, begodu zibukhali bekubusa zona emhlambini. Indlela eziphila ngayo iyarara ngombana i-hyena esikazi encani ngiyo ephatha umhlambi lokhawa nakufa eduna. Kuthiwa akusikanengi eduna iphatha umhlambi.

Ezisikazi ezinganaskhundla sokuphatha ziyasuka emhlambini zizithomele wawo. Ukukhandela bona zingazalani zizodwa, eziduna ezinengi ziyasuka ziyokujoyina umhlambi omutjha. Ukobana zibe nobuhlobo buhle nezinye eziduna kuqakathekile kunobukhulu beduna, njeke zitlhoga kobana zakhe ubuhlobo nezinye lokha nazifudukela emhlambini omutjha.

Kubudisi ukutjho bona le ngesikazi nanyana ngeduna, ngebanga lokobana zombili izitho zangesese zazo inga ngezesikazi. Ezisikazi zinesitho sangaphasi esivuvukileko kanye nesitho esisasibinjana esingaphakathi kwesitho sangasese sobufazi esijamileko, esiqaleka inga yisitho sangesese se-hyena eduna.

Indlela isitho sangasese esisasibinjanesi sakheke ngayo, kwenza kobana kube budisi kobana ziye emsemeni ngebanga lokobana isithwesi siyahlaba nasijamileko. Eziduna kutlhogeka bona zizigedle zehlise umoya lokha naziya nezisikazesi emsemeni, okutlhadlhula bona kungebangalani ama-hyena aduna angasimarhamaru kiba ngiwo arhona kobana agcine aye emsemeni nalayo aduna.

Ipisi enamatjhatjhazi ithoma ukuzibandakanya ngezomseme lokha aneminyaka emithathu, unyaka woke. Abeletha abentwana abane nanyana munye ngemva kokobana azithwele amalanga ayi-110. Abentwababo babelethwa nge-psuedo penis okungunobangela owenza bona i-60% yabo irhameke lokha nabaphumako. Ubukhulu bomgodi ababelethwa ngawo buyazibulala khulukhulu nakungethoma ukubeletha.

Iimpisi ezisikazi zizuma indawo lapha azokubelethela khona ngaphambi kokobana abelethe, kuthi angabeletha abentwababo babase enarheni lapha ahlala khona ngemva kwemveke ezimbili abelethile. Abentwababo babelethwa amehlwabo avulekile bamunye baze babe nenyanga eziyi-12 ukuya kweziyi-18 ubudala. Bathoma ukudla inyama eduze kwalapha bahlala khona kusukela nabanenyanga ezihlanu ubudala. Bavamise ukubatjhiya lapha bahlala khona nenye i-hyena ebagadako lokha unina nakayokuzuma.

Iphetheni Yokubulala Nokudla

©Robert Hofmeyr
Abantu gade bahlumbana bona ama-hyena anamatjhatjhazi adla inyama efileko, kodwana enarheni ze-Africa ezisepumalanga kukholelwa bona ngewabaloyi nanyana agitjelwa baloyi ngebanga lendlela azuma ngayo erarako. Ngokuya ngokwerhubhululo elenziwe nguGus Mills, kutholakale bona ama-hyena anamatjhatjhazi kobana azuma khulu kunokobana adle inyama efileko kwezinye iindawo. Imihlambi yazo igijimisa islwane asizumako amakhilomitha amanengi sigcine sele sidiniwe siwe. Elinye irhubhululo livume bona amabhubezi, kwezinye iindawo adla iinsalela zokudla okubuya kuma-hyena kunokobana wona enze lokho. Ama-hyena azuma amanengi nanyana iyinye.

Ukudla kwe-hyena enamatjhatjhazi kungaba zinunwana ukuya enlwaneni zomango ezikulu. Awufuni ukuwakwatisa. Anemihlathi eqine khulu lokha nawuyimadanisa nemizimba yazo, umhlathazo uwavumela kobana agamule ngitjho namathambo wendlulamithi. Ziyahlasela ngitjho nefuyo kodwana akukavami, ngebanga lokobana ama-hyena anamatjhatjhazi avamise ukuhlala endaweni ekutlhogonyelwa kizo iimvelo esikhathini esinengi eSewula Africa. Nakangakavalelwa angahlasela iinkomo, izimvu, nembuzi. Abafuyi kutlhogeka kobana bakhumbule bona lokha nabayibona idla umzimba akutjho bona sele ibulale ifuyo.

Ngokuya ngokwe-Predation Management Manual, zithoma ngokudla inyama esemahlalweni, lokha nazidla umzimba opheleleko wefuyo, bese zivula amathumbu zidose izitho ezithambileko ezingaphakathi. Naziqeda ukudla amathumbu, zidla amaphaphu, kanye nemisipha yenyaweni neyembanjeni.

Umzimba wenziwa iincetjhana bese uyadoswa uyokudlelwa endaweni ethulileko, naziqeda ukudla imisipha. Azoni ukudla, njeke ngeze wathola ngitjho nesiqetjhana senyama lapha zidlele khona.

Ukuzitlhogomela

©Nigel Dennis
Iimpisi ezinamatjhatjhazi sele kurikhodwe bona pheze sekayaphela, njeke zinlwane ezisengozini encwadini i-Predation Management Manual, Book for Mammals, njeke abafuyi kutlhogeka bona bathinte bezomthetho abafaneleko ukuthola imvume yokubamba iinlwanezi.

Ngokuya ngokwe-Predation Management Manual, iinthiyo zama-leopard ekufakwe kizo umzimba wemvu efileko zingasetjenziswa ukurherha iimpisi ezinanamatjhatjhazi la ukuze zifuduswe. Ifensi yegezi ingarhelebha ukuziqotha eplasini, lokha ukuvalela ifuyo ebusuku, ukuba nabelusi abagada ifuyo kungarhelebha ukuvikela ifuyo ekudliweni zinlwane ezizumakwezi.

Translated by Busisiwe Skhosana