Ku Voniwa ka Mhinsi ya Swicoticoti

©Robert Hofmeyr
Mhinsi ya swicoticoti (Crocuta crocuta) hiyona leyikulu swinene eka ndyangu wa timhinsi. Yi languteka yiri yikulu swinene, mbyana leyinga vumbeka yotiyela, hi xitalo yi lehe 120 cm kuya eka 180 cm na ntikelo wa 60 kg kuya eka 80 kg. Mhinsi ya swicoticoti yina voya byintsongo byo basa nyana kuya eka xitshopani, mpunwa wo thyaka nyana na swicoticoti swa buraweni wo dzwihala kumbe swipatsu leswi talaka ku hunguteka mihlovo loko yiya yikula. Yina voya byo koma lebyi endlaka ntshiva laha nhlanei lebyinga yimela e henhla.

Tindleve ta mhinsi ya swicoticoti ita xirhendzevutani naswona ati tontswangi ku fana na leti ta leyi ya buraweni, naswona milenge yale mahlweni yi lehile kutlula yale ndzhaku, leswi endlaka leswaku makatla yatona yava e henhla kutlula xisuti xa wona. Titlhela ti vuriwa timhinsi leti hlekelelaka, hikokwalalho ka kuhlekelela loku tiku endlaka loko ti rila loko ti chavisiwile kumbe tihlasela swiharhi swin’wana.

Timhinsi ta muxaka lowu wa swicoticoti tina rhambu lerikulu swinene kutlula ta xisati leswi endlaka leswaku tiva ku fikela kwalomu ka 10% hivukulu kutlula ta xinuna, leswi swi endla leswaku kuva tona tingana nkanu nakuva tiva na vurhangeri eka rixaka ra tona. Timhinsi tina vurhangeri byoka byinga twisiseki eka rixaka ra tona laha vana va xisati vatekaka vulawuri loko leyinga rhangela yi lova. Kuna swiviko swa leswaku kuna minkarhi yokarhi leyi ta xinuna titekaka xiphemu xa vurhangeri eka rixaka.

Ta xisati letingariki na ntirho wa vurhangeri titala ku hambuka tiya sungula mintlawa ya tona. Ku sivela leswaku titlhela titswarisana hi xixaka, vana va xinuna vatala ku famba vaya hlangana na tinwana eka tindzhawu tinwana. Vuxaka byaku hanyisana na tin’wana ta xinuna byina nkoka swinene kutlula vukulu bya leyi ya xinuna, leswi vulaka leswaku tifanele kuva ti endla vuxaka byin’wana loko ti rhurhela eka mintlawa yin’wana.

Swatika swinene ku hambanyisa ta xinuna eka ta xisati, hikuva swirho swa xihundla swa leyi ya xisati swifana swinene hi xivumbeko na swa leyi ya xinuna. Mhinsi ya xisati ya swicoticoti yina swirho swa xihundla leswi fanaka swinene na swa leyi ya xinuna hivumbirhi ka swona.

Xivumbeko lexi xo hlamarisa eka xirho xa leyi ya xisati xitikisa swinene ku endliwa ka masangu hikuva xirho lexi xoko xiyimile xa tlhava. Leswi swivula leswaku ya xinuna yifanele ku teka nkarhi naku kongoma loko yi endla masangu, leswi swinga hlamuselaka leswaku hiswona swiendlaka leswaku tin’wani ta xinuna tikota ku endla kahle vunghana na leti ta xisati.

Timhinsi leti ta swicoticoti tiva tilulamele masangu loko tiri na malembe yanharhu hi vukhale, laha nkarhi wotswala wuvaka eka nkarhi wihi na wihi wa lembe. Kutswariwa n’wana un’we kuya eka mune endzhaku ko biha emirini kuringana 110 wa masiku. Vana vatswariwa hile ka pseudo-penis, leswi endlaka leswaku kwalomu ka 60% wa vana va tlimbeka loko vatswariwa. Xivumbeko lexintsongo xotswala hixona xitala ku dlaya vana ngopfu ngopfu eka ya xisati leyi tswalaka rosungula.

Ta xisati ti lava ndzhawu leyi tingata tswalela kona loko tingase tswala kutani vana loko vatswariwile vayisiwa laha hinkwato tinga kona kwalomu ka mavhiki yambirhi loko va tswariwile. Vana va tswariwa vapfuleke matihlo naswona va mama masi eka mhana kona kufikela loko vari na 12 kuya eka 18 wa tinhweti. Vata sungula ku ringeta kudya nyama leyinga kona ekusuhi loko vari na 5 wa tinhweti. Vatala kusiyiwa exivaleni na murindzi loko mhani wa kona ayile ekuhloteni.

Ku Dlaya na Madyelo

©Robert Hofmeyr
Vanhu ava ehleketa leswaku timhinsi ta swicoticoti tina vutoya swinene hikwalaho tilavaka ku dlayeriwa xihari, kambe eka matiko yanwana yale Eastern Africa kutshembiwa leswaku ita valoyi naswona va khandziya tona loko vaya eku loyeni.

Kuya hi vulavisisi bya Gus Mills, ku kumeke leswaku mhinsi ya swicoticoti yi hlota ngopfu kutlula kukuma kudlayiwe xiharhi yona yifika hiku dya, laha mintlawa ya tona yi hlongorisaka swihari kuringana mpfhuka woleha swinene kufikela lexi hlongorisiwaka yi titivala hiku karhala. Eka vulavisisi byin’wana byi tiyisisa leswaku tinghala, eka tindzhawu tin’wana, tikota ku tekela timhinsi swakudya kambe kungari timhinsi ti tekelaka tinghala swakudya. Tinga hlota tiri toxe kumbe himintlawa.

Swakudya swa mhinsi leyi ya swicoticoti swi sukela eka switsotswana kuya eka swiharhi swale nhoveni leswikulu. Ungaka unga tsakeli ku hlundzukisa mhinsi hikuva yina khombo. Timhinsi leti tina tinhlaya totiya swinene letinga ringanela miri wa tona kutlula swiharhi leswotala, leti tipfumelelaka ku fayelela marhambu hambi kuri ya tinhuntla.

Swifuwo swale kaya swinga dlawa hi tona kambe swakala swinene, tani hileswi mhinsi ya swicoticoti yikumekaka entangeni lowu nga sirheleriwa hixitalo e Afrika Dzonga. Tihomu, tinyimpfu na timbuti i swifuwo leswi nga e khombyeni eka minkarhi yin’wana loko swita eka timhinsi. Van’wamapurasi vafanele kuva vatsundzuka leswaku kuva vavona mhinsi yirikarhi yidya ntsumbu wa xiharhi aswivuli leswaku hiyona yinga dlaya xiharhi xexo.

Kuya hi Predation Management Manual, tita sungula tidya nyama kusukela laha endzhaku ka xiharhi, loko tidya xiharhi lexikulu, kutani tipfula laha khwirini tihumesa swirho leswinga olova. Loko khwiri na makhumbi xikan’we na swalendzeni swidyiwile, mhinsi yitadya mahahu, timayisele ta khwiri na le milengeni.

Kutani ntsumbu wutsemeleriwa wuva na swiphemu phemu kutani tiya dya hikurhula tinga kavanyetiwi hi swiharhi swinwana, loko se timayisele tidyiwile. Ati tlangisi swakudya na kan’we, leswi vulaka leswaku aswitalanga kuva swivonaka laha kunga dya tona loko ntlawa wu hetile.

Vulawuri

©Nigel Dennis
Timhinsi leti ta swicoticoti titsarisiwe tani hi swiharhi leswinga e khombyeni eka South Africa Red Data Book for Mammals, se van’wamapurasi vafanele kutihlanganisa na valawuri kukuma mpfumelelo lowu lavekaka kuva va khoma swiharhi leswi.

Kuya hi Predation Management Manual kunga tirhisiwa xitlhakani xa leopard cage lexingana ntsumbu wa nyimpfu kuva ku phasiwa timhinsi leti leswaku tita rhurhiseriwa eka ndzhawu yin’wana. Darata ya gezi yinga tirhisiwa kuva yisusa timhinsi leti emapurasini, kasi kuva swifuwo swipfaleriwa exivaleni, murisi xikan’we na murindzi swinga pfuna kuva swifuwo switshama swihlayisekile.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni