Winnie Mandela – Ukuqala Kobomi Bakhe

Wazalwa eTranskei

©Eric Miller
Ngomhla ka 26 September 1936, uNomzamo Winifred Zanyiwe Madikizela wazalwa kwilali yase Bizana kwindawo eyayikade ibizwa nge Transkei (Mpuma Koloni). Umama wakhe, uNomathamsanqa Mzaidume (Gertrude), wayefundisa isayensi yasekhaya (domestic science), utata wakhe yena uColumbus Kokani, wayegusihlalo we Zolimo kunye Namahlathi eTranskei. uWinnie wayengumntwana wesine, kubantwana abasibhozo.

Ngelishwa, umama ka Winnie walandulela eli ngomyaka ka 1944, ngethuba uWinnie eneminyaka esi 8 kuphela. Kodwa ke, uWinnie waqhubeleka nezifundo zakhe zamabanga aphantsi eBizana wandula ukuqhubeleka nokugqibezela izifundo zakhe zamabanga aphakamileyo . uWinnie wabanethuba lokufumana imfundo ephucukileyo kunaleyo yoninzi lwabantwana abamnyama ababese Mzantsi Afrika ngeloxesha.

Umthetho owathi waliwa lilizwe jikelele, oyi Bantu Education Act, wawiswa sele ekhulile yena. Wafunda ibanga lakhe leshumi kwisikolo sase Shawsbury eQunu, nalapho wafunda khona izakhono zobunkokheli. Wabuyela ekhayeni lakhe, nalapho wafika utata wakhe sele ephinde watshata no Hilda Nophikela, nowamamkela yena kunye nabantakwabo ngezandla ezinobubele.

Umsebenzi ka Winnie njengo Nontlalo Ntle

©Peter Magubane
Ngengcebiso zika tata wakhe, uWinnie walishiya elase Transkei esingise eGolo ngomnyaka ka 1953, ukuze afunde izifundo zono ntlalo ntle. Apha ke wafunda kwisikolo i Jan Hofmeyr School of Social Work. Ngomnyaka ka 1955 wapasa emagqabini kwi klasi yakhe, waze wafumana inkxaso mali yokuya kufunda eMelika.

Akazange ayithathe lenkxaso, wakhetha ukusebenza njengo nontlalo ntle kwilizwe lakhe. uWInnie wasebenza njengonontlalontle kwisibhedlele esise Johannesburg esibizwa nge Baragwanath Hospital. Wabangumntu omnyama wokuqala ukusebenza kwesi sikhundla. Waqhubeka nokuzenzela igama kwesi sibhedlele, ephuma kuma phepha-ndaba abalisa amabali ngokuqala kobomi bakhe kwakunye nempumelelo yomsebenzi wakhe.

Ukudibana Kwakhe no Nelson Mandela

©Eric Miller
uWinnie wathi wabanomdla kwipolitiki zelizwe jikelele nakumzabalazo ngethuba esebenza kwisibhedelea ase Baragwanath. Wayesele ezibonele ngawakhe intlupheko ababephila phantsi kwayo abantu abahlala ezilokishini. Uphando lwakhe lokubhubha kwamasana kwilokishi yase Alexanda, nalapho kwakubhubha iintsana ezili 10 kwezi ngama 1000 ezizelweyo.

Oku kwenza ukuba uWinnie akuqaphele ngakumbi ukungalingani kwelizwe loMzantsi Afrika. uWinnie wazama iindlela zokutshintsha oku, kwaye wayeququzela kakhulu kwezepolitiki nangaphambi kokudibana kwakhe no Nelson Mandela.

Ngethuba ese Baragwanath, uWinnie wayehlala kwigumbi elinye kunye no Adelaide Tshukudu, kwelinye lamagumbi akwi hostela zabasebenzi. Esi sibini saba ngabahlobo abasenyongweni. Njengabahlobo bonke, babencokola kude kuhambe ubusuku. uAdelaide wabalisela uWinnie ngegqwetha (owayesukuba ngu mongameli we ANC, uOliver Tambo), nowayezakutshata no Adelaide lo, kwakunye nalowo wayebambisene naye, uNelson Mandela.
uWinnie kunye no Nelson bazikhuphana okokuqala, baya kwi restyu yama Ndiya eyayikufutshane nee ofisi zakhe zamagqwetha.

uNelson Mandela wayemshiya ngeminyaka engamashumi anesithandathu uWinnie, kwaye waye sele engumntu obalulekileyo kwi politiki zelizwe, nasekulweni ucalu-calulo. Akuzange kumoyikise kwaphela oku uWinnie, kwaye akazange aphele mandla. Ngomnyaka ka 1957, xa emcela ukuba amtshate, uWinnie wavuma ngoko nangoko. Baye batshata ngenyanga ka Juni kunyaka olandelayo.