Umsebenzi ka Desmond Tutu wa Ngaphandle eMzantsi Afrika

Ukufundela ubu Tishala

©Eric Miller
Desmond Tutu at Bishopscourt.
uDesmond Tutu wayesoloko efuna ukuba ngu gqirha, kodwa wasokola ukufuman inkxaso mali yokubhatalela izifundo zakhe. Wakhetha ukufundela ubutishala, waze waqala izifundo zakhe kwi kholehji eyayibizwa nge Bantu Normal College ngomnyaka ka 1951. Ngethuba elapho, wayezibandakanye kakhulu nemicimbi yabafundi encedisa nasekuqulunqeni umbutho abawubiza nge Literacy and Dramatic Society. Wabanguye nosihlal we Cultural and Debating Society waze wasebenza nangomgcini zimali we Student Representative Council. Waye wathatha nezifundo ezintlanu ezifundelwa ekhaya (correspondence courses) kwi Dyunivesithi yase Mzantsi Afrika. Ngomnyaka ka 1954 waphumelela imfundo yakhe enomsila eyi Teachers Diploma waze ngomnyaka ka 1955 wafumana eye Bachelar of Arts Degree.

Umnyaka ka 1955 ikwangunyaka apho lo ka Tutu waqala umsebenzi wakhe njenge tishala yamabanga aphakamileyo. Kulapho ke wazibonela ngawakhe ukuwiswa komthetho we Bantu Education Act nowawiswa ngomnyaka ka 1953. Phantsi kwalomthetho, abafundi abamnyama babenikwa imfundo ekumgangatho ophantsi, neyayidobelela amathuba ekamva eliqaqambileyo. Kwamcaphukisa ngeyona ndlela uTutu oku, wancama wayeka ukufundisa ngenxa yesi sizathu.

Izifundo ze Theology

Ngomnyaka ka 1958 Tutu wabhalisa kwi kholeji ebizwa nge St Peter’s Theological College nalapho wafunda khona izifundo ze Bible, Anglican doctrine kunye ne Christian Ethics. Wakhawuleza wabayindumasi ngokuba krelekrele abe ke phofu enentobeko. Iphepha awalibhalayo ngenkolo yobuKrestu neye Islam laphumelela iwonga elibizwa nge annual essay prize. Nangona udushe lwezo politiko lwaluya lukhula eMzantsi Afrika, njengokuba umzabalazo olwisana nocalucalulo uya uqiniseka, uTutu waqhubeka engazibandakanyi nepolitiki.

Wafumana imfundo enomsila ebizwa nge Licentiate of Theology degree waze wathweswa njengo mpristi ngomnyaka ka 1960. Ngomnyaka ka 1962,uTutu wafudukela eNgilani ukuya kuqhubeleka nezifundo zakhe ze theology kwi kholeji ebizwa nge King’s College London. Ixesha awalichitha eLondon lamvumela ukuba afumane umtyhi kwingcinezela awayejongene naye emva ekhaya. Apha wayekhululekile ukuba alande ekhondweni lezinye izinto anomdla kuzo ezifana neqakamba. Lomdlalo waye wawuthanda.

Wathi emka apho wabe sele enezidanga ze Bachelor of Divinity Honours kunye ne Master of Theology degrees, iphepha awalibhalayo (dissertation) lalingenkolo ye Islam eNtshona Afrika. uTutu walishiya elase United Kingdom ngomnyaka ka 1966 esingise eMzantsi Afrika. Ngaphambi kokuba abuyele ekhaya watyelela eParis, Rome ze wagqibela nge Mpuma Jerusalem, nalapho wachitha iinyanga ezimbini efunda ilwimi zesi Hebhere kunye nesi Arab. Apha ke, wayothukile kukujongana ngezikhondo zamehlo phakathi kwama Jewish kunye nabantu bohlanga lwama Arab awathi wadibana nabo.

Wafunda nge Black Theology

©Eric Miller
Archbishop Desmond Tutu in his Cape Town office 13/11/2001.
Ngomnyaka 1967, ekubeni ebuyele eMzantsi Afrika, uTutu wasokola ukuqhelana nentlalo apho abantu babesohlulwa ngokobuhlanga kukho nemithetho engqingqwa yokuphatha kwama pasi. Noxa kunjalo, waqhubeleka nomsebenzi wakhe wokufundisa nokuzama ukwazisa uluntu ngentsolokolo yabantu base Mzantsi Afrika. Wafundisa kwi Federal Theological Seminary (Fedsem) kwindawo yase Alice eseNtshona Koloni. Oku kwakhuphambi kokuba aye kusebenza kwi Dyunivesithi yase Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland (UBLS) ngomnyaka ka 1970.

Ngethuba ehlala eLesotho wasebenza njengomvavanyi wangaphandle kwizikolo iFedsem kunye nakwi Dyunivesithi yase Rhodes. Wathi wabayinxalenye yebhodi ephakamileyo yombutho owawubizwa nge Lesotho Ecumenical Association. Kulapha ke apho wathi wafunda khona nge Black Theology waye waba nomnqeno wokuyidibanisa kunye ne African Theology ukuze ihambelane nemo yase Mzantsi Afrika, newayeyiqhelile kwaye eyazi.

Ukusebenzela iTEF

Ngomnyaka ka 1972 uTutu waphinda wafudukela kwelase Ngilane, ukuya kusebenza. Wasebenza njenge Associate Director for Africa emele iTheological Education Fund (TEF). Esi sikhundla samvumela ukuba andwendwele amazwe asokolayo abizwa nge Third World countries. Lamazwe ayequka amazwe amaninzi ase Afrika. Wabhala ngawakubonayo apho, ebalisa nangohrwaphilizo kunye nendlala ese Zaire, ungquzulwano lwama Krestu-Muslim eNigeria, kunye norhulumente oncomekayo wase Kenya owawuphantsi kolawulo luka Jomo Kenyatta kwakunye nokunyashwa kohlanga lwe Asians zase Uganda, phantsi kolawulo luka Idi Amin.

uTutu wasebenzea iTheological Education Fund isithuba seminyaka emithathu ngaphambi kokuba abuyele eMzantsi Afrika ngomnyaka ka 1975. Wasebenza njenge Dean yecawe ebizwa nge St. Mary’s Cathedral kwindawo yase Johannesburg. Wabangumntu omnyama wokuqala wase Afrika ukuba kwisikhundla se Anglican Dean. Waye wasebenza nanjenge Bishop yase Lesotho ukusuka kwiminyaka ka 1976 ukuya kweka 1978. Ngeli thuba waye waba ngu Sobhala jikele we South African Council of Churches wokuqala ontsundu.

Ukubandakanyeka Kumazwe Angaphandle

©Roger de la Harpe
Mayor Mike Tarr and Deputy Mayor Jabu Ngube with Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu Natal 2011.
uDesmond Tutu ukhunjulwa kakhulu ngegalelo lakhe kwinkululeko yoMzantsi Afrika, kodwa waye bandakanyeka kakhulu kwimiba yamazwe angaphandle, equka oku kulandelayo:

Ngomnyaka ka 1987 wenza intetho njengesithethi esiphambili kwinkomfa ebizwa nge All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) kwindawo yase Togo, nalapho wathetha ngocinezeleko lwabantu base Afrika. Waye bongoza iicawe ukuba zincedise apho zinakho. Ethubeni wonyulwa njengo mongameli we AACC.

Ngomnyaka ka 1988 uTutu wathetha kwi nkomfa ye Lambeth conference ememelela ukuba kuziwe nesisombululo kwingxushu ngxushu ese Northern Ireland.

Ngomnyaka ka 1989 watyelelw ilizwe lase Zaire (Ngoku laziwa nge Democratic Republic of Congo) ukukhuthaza iicawe ukuba ziziqelelanise norhulumente olwawula ngegqudu.

Ngomnyaka ka 1989 wathetha nange ngxushu ngxushu yama Sirayeli kunye nama Palestina. Evumelana nelungelo lelizwa lika Sirayeli ukuba lizikhusele kuko nakuphi na ukuhlaselwa ngabo bafuna ukuyitshabalalisa. Wafanisa esi simo kunye neso socalulo eMzantsi Afrika.

Watyelela ilizwe lase Liberia ngomnyaka ka 1994 ngenjongo yoku ququzelela inkqubo yokucima amadabi, emele iAACC.

Ngomnyaka ka 1995 wathunyelwa kwilizwe lase Nigeria ngu Nelson Mandela, ukuze aye kucela ukukhululwa kwamabanjwa ezepolitki. Waze ekupheleni kwalo nyaka watyelela kwilizwe lase Rwanda emva kokuba kubulewe ngolunye isininzi sabantu, ukuze ashumayele amemelele nokuba kuziswe uxolo.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana