Umsebenzi ka-Desmond Ngaphandle kweSewula Africa

Uthatha Ibizelo Lokufundisa

©Eric Miller
UDesmond Tutu wayefuna ukuba ngudorhodere, kodwana lokha nakatlhaga ukuthola umfundaze wokubhadalela iskolo sezepilo wakhetha bona athathe ibizelo lokuba ngutitjhere. Wathoma wathwasela ibizelo lakhe Ebantu Normal College ngonyaka ka-1951. Lapho khabe angenelele eendabeni zabafundi, abarhelebha kobana bahlele ihlangano ye-Literacy and Dramatic Society, angumgcinistulo we-Cultural and Debating Society, asebenza godu njenge-treusure ye-Student Representative Council. Wathatha iimfundo ezihlanu ne-Unisa afunda ngeposo ngonyaka. Ngonyaka ka-1954 wathola iziqu zakhe, ekuyiDiploma yokufundisa, kwathi ngonyaka ka-1955 wathola iziqu ze-Bachelor of Arts Degree.

Ngonyaka ka-1955 egade kumnyaka lapha uTutu athoma khona ibizelo lakhe lokubangutitjhere wamabanga aphezulu, kulapho abona khona kobona umthetho we-Bantu Education usebenza njani lokha nawuthonywa ukusetjenziswa ngonyaka ka-1953. Ngaphasi komthetho lo, abafundi bebala elinzima gade babafundisa ifundo engazisiko, egade ingeze yabaphumelelisa ekutholeni ikusasa elihle. UTutu kwamkwatwatisa khulu lokhu, wagcina sele alisile ukufundisa.

Iimfundo Zokubamfundisi

Ngonyaka ka-1958 UTutu wazitlolisa e-St Peter’s Theological College, lapha azitlolisela khona iimfundo ze-Bible, Anglican doctrine and Christian Ethics. Waduma khulu ngokuhlakanipha khulu nokuthanda ukusebenza lokha ahlala anobuntu. Imbapiri ayitlolako ngobuzalwani kanye ne-Islam yamenza bona athumbe unongorwana wokutlola indatjana ogade uthunjwa njakanonyaka. Nanyana gade sele kuba nemiguruguru yepolotiki eSewula Africa ngebanga lokobana bantu abanzima gade sele badinwe kugandelelwa, uTutu wahlala azibandakanyile kwezepolotiki. Wathola ilayisansi ye-Theology degree wabekwa njengomfundisi ngonyaka ka-1960.

Ngonyaka ka-1962 uTutu wafudukela e-United Kingdom lapha gade aragela phambili ngemfundo zakhe ze-Theology e-King’s College, enarheni ye-London iskhathesi ase-London samvumela bona akhe aphumule igandelelo egade aqalene nalo enarheni yekhabo, begodu kade atjhaphulukile kobana angenza izinto azithandako ezifana nokudlala i-criket, ekhabe ayithanda khulu. Wahlala lapho waze waqeda iimfundo zakhe ze-Bachelor of Divinity Honours and Master of Theology degrees, lapha egade afunda ngama-Islam wase-Western Africa.

UTutu wasuka e-United Kingdom ngonyaka ka-1966 wabuyela eSewula Africa. Ngaphambi kokobana abuye ekhaya wakweriyela e-Paris, eRoma wagcina ngokuya eJerusalema lapha ahlala khona iinyanga ezimbili afunda isiHebheru kanye nesi-Arabhu. Wathukwa nakabona ukungazwani ekhabe kukhona hlangana nabantu abamhlobo wamaJuda kanye nebama-Arabhu.

Bamthula Emfundweni ze-Theology Yabantu Abanzima

©Eric Miller
Ngonyaka ka-1967, emuva eSewula Africa, uTutu gade abhalelwa kujwayela umphakathi lapha gade abantu bahlukaniswa khona ngobuhlanga kanye nomthetho wamapasa. Nanyana kunjalo, waragela phambili ngomsebenzakhe wokufundisa, begodu alinga ukulemukisa abantu ngeSewula Africa lapha abantu gade batlhaga khona. Wafundisa e-Federal Theological Seminary (Fedsem) ese-Alice esifundeni se-Eastern Cape ngaphambi kokobana afuduke ayokusebenza eJunivesithu yeBotswana, Lesotho kanye neSwazini (UBLS) ngonyaka ka-1970.

Lokha nakahlala eLesotho wasebenza njenge-external examiner asebenzela i-Fedsem kanye ne-Rhodes University lapha ajoyina khona i-executive board ye-Lesotho Ecumenical Association. Kulapha bamthula khona ku-Black Theology begodu wagcugcuzeleka kobana ayihlanganise ne-African Theology kobana ifanelane naleyo yeSewula Africa ngombana vele bepheze zifane.

Usebenzela i-TEF

Ngonyaka ka-1972 uTutu wafudukela Emuva e-England wayokusebenza khona. Wathola iskhundla se-Associate Director for Africa ajamele i-Theological Education Fund (TEF). Iskhundlesi gade simvumela bona aye enarheni ezibizwa bona ma-Third World countries, ekubalwa hlangana iinarha ezinengi e-Africa. Watlola ngokobana kwakunjani nakalapho akhumbula i-corruption kanye nomtlhago ogade use-Zaire, kokobana abazalwane kanye nama-Muslim gade baphila njani eNigeria, ukhumbula urhulumende ogade abusa ngendlela ekarisako weKenya ngaphasi kwakaJomo Kenyatta kanye nokuqothwa kwama-Isian we-Uganda aqothwa ngu-Idi Amin.

UTutu wassebenza e-Theological Education Fund iminyaka emithathu ngaphambi kokobana buye eSewula Africa ngonyaka ka-1975. Wakhethwa njenge-Dean ye-St. Mary’s Cathedral eJwanisbhege, okwamenza waba mumunto wokuthoma onzima we-Africa ukuba yi-Dean yekerege le-Anglican. Wasebenza godu njengombhishobhi weLesotho ngonyaka ka-1976 ukuya ku-1978 lokha nakaba ngunobhala jikelele wokuthoma omumuntu onzima we-South African Council of Churches.

Ukuzibandakanya Eendabeni Zenarha Zangaphandle

©Roger de la Harpe
UDesmond Tutu pheze ukhunjulwa ngendima ayidlalako ekutjhatjhululweni kweSewula Africa, kodwana gade azibandakanye khulu endabeni zenarha zangaphandle ekubalwa ezilandelako:

Ngonyaka ka-1987 wathula ikulumo e-All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) eTogo lapha akhuluma khona ngeAfrica egandelelweko, abawa amakerege kobana arhelebhe lapha angarhona khona. Kwathi lada wakhethwa wabanguMongameli we-AACC.

Ngonyaka ka-1988 uTutu wakhuluma ekhomfrentsini ye-Lambeth abawa kobana kurarululeke umraro ose-Northern Ireland.

Ngonyaka ka-1989 wakweriyela (inarha esele ibizwa ngokobana yi-Democratic Republic of Congo) ayokugcugcuzela amakerege kobana angazisondezi kurhulumende wabontambozilikhunu.

Ngonyaka ka-1989 wakhuluma ngepi ehlangana ne-Israyeli kanye nePakhistani agandelela ilungelo lenarha ye-Israel lokobana lizivikele ekuhlaselweni ngilabana abalalela kobana libekhona. Wafanisa ubujamobo nalobo obuseSewula Africa.

Wakweriyela eLiberia ngonyaka ka-1994 ayokuhlela kobana kuqede ukudutjulwana ajamele ihlangano ye-AACC.

Ngonyaka ka-1995 wathunyelwa e-Nigeria nguNelson Mandela kobana ayokubawa kobana kukhitjhwe amabanjwa wepolotiki kawathi lada ngonyaka loyo wakweriyela iRwanda ngemva kwepi yesikhaya ukuyokutjhumayela begodu abawe kobana kube nobulungiswa.

Translated by Busisiwe Skhosana