Ntirho wa Desmond Tutu e handle ka Afrika Dzonga

A Teka Vudyondzisi

©Eric Miller
Desmond Tutu kusukela khale a lavile kuva dokodela, kambe loko atava a pfumarile macheleni yo hakela xikolofisi exikolweni xavu Dokodela u tekile tidyondzo ta vudyondzisi. U sungurile ku leteriwa e Bantu Normal College hi 1951. Loko ari kwale u nghenelerile swinene eka migingiriko ya machudeni, laha anga pfuneta ku lulamisa Literacy and Dramatic Society, a rhangela Cultural and Debating Society kutani ava mukhomi wa nkwamaeka Student Representative Council. U tlhele a teka tidyondzo ta ntlhanu to dyondza uri e kule na University ya South Africa. Hi 1954 u tokotile hi Teachers Diploma kutani hi 1955 akuma Bachelor of Arts Degree.

1955 akuri lembe leri Tutu anga sungula kuva mudyondzisi eka xikolo xale henhla laha anga hlangana kona na Bantu Education Act leyi ayi sungule kutirhisiwa hi 1953. Ehansi ka nawu walowo, machudeni ya vantima ava nyikiwa dyondzo leyingava pfuneku nchumu, leyi ayiva sivela kuhumelela eka vumundzuku bya vona. Tutu a kwatisiwile swinene hi leswi kutani a sukela vudyondzisi hikokwalaho ko kombisa kuvilela.

Tidyondzo ta Theology

Hi 1958 Tutu uti tsarisele e St Peter’s Theological College laha anga dyondza kona Bible, Anglican doctrine na Christian Ethics. Uve na ndhuma yakuva a tlharihile swinene laha a vula swilo akari a tisa mafenya hile tlhelo. Phepha ra yena eka vukriste na Islam ritlhomiwe risiva eka archbishop’s essay prize ya lembe na lembe. Hambi leswi kutshukiselana mahlo hikwalaho ka tipolotiki aswi tinyika matimba laha tikweni ra Afrika Dzonga kulwela ntshunxeko swiyile emahlweni, Tutu u tshame angari eka tipolotiki. U tikumele Licentiate of Theology degree naswona u vekiwile kuva mufundhisi hi 1960.

Hi 1962 Tutu u rhurhele e United Kingdom kuyisa tidyondzo ta yena ta theology emahlweni e King’s College e London. Nkarhi lowu Tutu angawu tshama e London wun’wipfumelele kuwisa ntshikelelo wa laha tikweni lowu a langutane na wona naswona a tshunxekile kuva a tlnaga mintlangu yofana na cricket, leyi ayi tsakela swinene. U hetile tidyondzo takwe ta Bachelor of Divinity Honours na Master of Theology degrees, laha a famba emahlweni hi Islam e Western Africa.

Tutu usukile e United Kingdom hi 1966 kuvuya laha Afrika Dzonga. Loko anga se vuya laha kaya u vhakele Paris, Rome kutani a hetelela hile vuxeni bya Jerusalem laha anga heta tinhweti timbirhi akarhi a dyondza Hebrew na Arabic. Laha a hlamarisiwile swinene hi nkwetlembetano lowu awuri kona exikarhi ka ma Jewish na vanhu va ma Arab lava anga hlangana na vona.

A tivisiwa eka Black Theology

©Eric Miller
Hi 1967, loko atava a vuyile laha Afrika Dzonga, Tutu u hluphekile swinene ku tolovela kuhanya vutomi lebyi abyi talele hi ku avana na milawu ya mapasi. Hambi swiritano, uyisile ntirho wakwe e mahlweni waku letela machudeni naswona aringeta ku lemukisa hi swirilo swa vusweti bya ma Afrika Dzonga.

U dyondzisile eka Federal Theological Seminary (Fedsem) e Alice exifundzeni xa Eastern Cape loko anga se rhurhela e University of Botswana, Lesotho na Swaziland (UBLS) hi 1970.

Loko aha tshama e Lesotho u tirhile tani hi mukamberi wa le handle wa Fedsem nale Rhodes University kutani ava xiphemu xa bodo ya Lesotho Ecumenical Association.

Laha hikona anga tivisiwa eka Black Theology naswona u hlohleteriwile kuva ayi katsa na African Theology leswaku yita fikelela leswi yale Afrika Dzonga ayiri xiswona leswi a tolovele swona.

Kutirhela TEF

Hi 1972 Tutu u tlhele a rhurhela e England kuya tirha kona. U thoriwile tani hi Associate Director wa Africa hiku yimela Theological Education Fund (TEF). Xitulu lexinga n’wi pfumelela ku famba matiko yati Third World, ku katsa na yotala ya Afrika. U tsale hita ntokoto wakwe kona, a hlamusela nahi vukungundwani lebyinga tala na vusweti e Zaire, ndzhawu ya Christian-Muslim yale Nigeria, mfumo lowu awutsakisa wa tiko ra Kenya ehansi ka vurhangeri bya Jomo Kenyatta xikan’we naku hlongoriwa eka Ugandan Asians e hansi ka Idi Amin.

Tutu u tirhile eka Theological Education Fund kuringana malembe yanharhu loko anga se tlhela a vuya laha Afrika Dzonga hi 1975. U thoriwile tani hi Dean yale St. Mary’s Cathedral e Johannesburg, kutani ava wantima wosungula wa mu Afrika kuva Anglican Dean. U tlhele a tirha tani hi Bishop wale Lesotho kusukela hi 1976 kuya fika eka 1978 loko atava matsalani generali wosungula wa South African Council of Churches.

Ku hoxa xandla eka timhaka ta matiko mambe

©Roger de la Harpe
Desmond Tutu u tsundzukiwa ngopfu eka ku hoxa xandla ka yena eka kulwela ntshunxeko e Afrika Dzonga, kambe a tirha ngopfu eka timhaka ta matiko mambe kukatsa leswi landzelaka:

Hi 1987 unyike mbulavulo eka All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) e Togo laha anga vulavula hi swirilo swa ntshikelelo e Afrika, laha anga kombela tikereke kupfuna hilaha tinga kotaka hikona. U hetelele a hlawuriwa tani hi president wa AACC.

Hi 1988 Tutu u vulavule eka Lambeth conference laha a kombela kuri kuva na swintshuxo eka ntlimbo lowu awuri e Northern Ireland.

Hi 1989 u vhakele Zaire (leri sweswi kunga Democratic Republic of Congo) ku hlohletela tikereke ku fambela kule na mimfumo ya xihlawuhlawo.

Hi 1989 u tlhele a vulavula hi ntlimbo wale e Israeli-Palestine laha mfumo wa Israel awu nyikiwa matimba na vuhlayiseki eka kuhlasela lava ava aleriwa mpfumelelo wo hanya. Leswi aswi pimanyisa swinene na mfumo wa xihlawuhlawu lexi axiri laha tikweni ra Afrika Dzonga.

U vhakerile Liberia hi 1994 eka ntirho woya lulamisa ku vekiwa e hansi ka matlharhi hiku yimela AACC.

Hi 1995 u rhumisiwile e Nigeria hi Nelson Mandela kuya kombela leswaku ku tshunxiwa vabohiwa va tipolotiki kutani endzhaku nyana ka lembe rero u yile a Rwanda endzhaku ka ku yayarheliwa ka vanhu kuya chumayila naku kombela leswaku nawu wuteka vundzhawu.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni