Umsebenzi kaDesmond Tutu Ngaphandle kweNingizimu Afrika

Ukuphishekela Ukufundisa

©Eric Miller
Desmond Tutu at Bishopscourt.
UDesmond Tutu wayefuna njalo ukuba abe udokotela, kodwa lapho ezama ukuthola imali yokukhokhela esikoleni sezokwelapha, wakhetha ukuphishekela umsebenzi wokufundisa. Waqala ukuqeqesha e-Bantu Normal College ngo-1951. Ngesikhathi lapho wayebandakanyeka kakhulu ezindabeni zabafundi, esiza ukuhlela uLwazi lokuFunda nokuBambela, ukuqhuba iSikole Senkcubeko Nezimpikiswano nokukhonza njengomgcinimafa eMkhandlwini omele abafundi.

Wabuye wathatha izifundo ezinhlanu zokubhala izincwadi eNyuvesi yaseNingizimu Afrika. Ngo-1954 waphothula izifundo zakhe noThishas Diploma wakhe futhi ngo-1955 wathola iBachelor of Arts Degree.

Ngonyaka ka-1955 kwaba ngumnyaka kaTutu owaqala umsebenzi wakhe njengothisha wesikole esiphakeme lapho eqala ukubonakala khona ku-Bantu Education Act eyasungulwa ngo-1953. Ngaphansi koMthetho, abafundi abamnyama babekwe emfundweni eyimfundo engamaphesenti, okwakunciphisa kakhulu ikusasa labo amathemba. UTutu wathukuthelelwa yilokhu futhi ekugcineni wayesefundisa ekubhikeni.

Izifundo zeThiyology

Ngo-1958 uTutu wabhalisa eSt Peter's Theological College lapho efundela khona iBhayibheli, imfundiso yamaNgisi kanye nemithetho yobuKristu. Wathola udumo ngokuba ohlakaniphile futhi okhuthele kakhulu ngenkathi egcina umuzwa wokuthobeka. Iphepha lakhe lobuKristu nobuSulumane lathola umklomelo wonyaka waminyaka yonke we-archbishop. Ngisho noma ukungezwani kwezombusazwe bekhuphuka eNingizimu Afrika njengoba umzabalazo wokulwa nobubandlululo uqhubeka, uTutu waqhubeka ekhululekile. Wathola i-Licentiate yeTheology degree futhi wamiswa njengompristi ngo-1960.

Ngo-1962 uTutu wathuthela e-United Kingdom ukuze aqhubekele izifundo zakhe zenkolo eNkosini's College London. Isikhathi uTutu ahlala eLondon samvumela ukukhululeka ekucindezelekeni ayebhekene nawo ezweni lakubo futhi wayekhululekile ukuhlola ezinye izinto ezifana nekhilikithi, eyakhula. Wagcwalisa isikhathi sakhe lapho nge Bachelor of Divinity Honors and Master of Theology degrees, ukukhululwa kwakhe kwaba Islam in Western Africa.

UTutu washiya i-United Kingdom ngo-1966 eNingizimu Afrika. Ngaphambi kokuba abuyele ekhaya wavakashela eParis, eRoma futhi ekugcineni eMpumalanga yeJerusalema lapho echitha izinyanga ezimbili efunda isiHebheru nesi-Arabhu. Lapha washaqeka ukungezwani phakathi kwabantu abangamaJuda nabama-Arabhu ayehlangana nabo.

IThiyoloji yabantu abamnyama

©Eric Miller
Archbishop Desmond Tutu in his Cape Town office 13/11/2001.
Ngo-1967, emuva eNingizimu Afrika, uTutu wazama ukulungiswa emphakathini owabekwa ngaphansi kokucwaswa okunzima nokudlula imithetho. Noma kunjalo, waqhubeka nokuqasha umsebenzi wakhe futhi ezama ukuqwashisa ngokuhlupheka kwabantu baseNingizimu Afrika abampofu. Wafundisa e-Federal Theological Seminary (Fedsem) e-Alice eMpumalanga Kapa ngaphambi kokuthuthela emsebenzini eNyuvesi yaseBotswana, eLesotho naseSwaziland (UBLS) ngo-1970.

Ngesikhathi ehlala eLesotho, waba ngumhloli wangaphandle weFedsem neRhodes University futhi wajoyina ibhodi eliphezulu leLesotho Ecumenical Association. Kwakukhona lapha ukuthi waziswa kwi-Theological Black futhi waphefumulelwa ukuba afakaze ngeTheology yase-Afrika ukuze afane nomongo waseNingizimu Afrika owawujwayele kakhulu.

Ukusebenzela i-TEF

Ngo-1972 uTutu wabuyela eNgilandi ukuze asebenze. Wabekwa uMqondisi Wobambiswano we-Afrika egameni leTheological Education Fund (TEF). Lesi sikhundla samvumela ukuba ahambe emazweni asithathu, kuhlanganise nabaningi e-Afrika. Wabhala ngalokho okuhlangenwe nakho kwakhe lapho, echaza inkohlakalo ekhulayo kanye nobubha eZaire, ukusebenzisana kwamaKristu namaSulumane eNigeria, uhulumeni othakazelisayo waseKenya ngaphansi kweJomo Kenyatta kanye nokuxoshwa kwama-Uganda ase-Uganda ngaphansi kwe-Idi Amin.

UTutu wakhonza i-Theological Education Fund iminyaka emithathu ngaphambi kokuba abuyele eNingizimu Afrika ngo-1975. Wamiswa uDean of St. Mary's Cathedral eGoli, waba ngumuntu wokuqala weNtsundu Afrika ukuba abe ngumphathi we-Anglican. Wabe esekhonza njengoMbhishobhi waseLesotho kusukela ngo-1976 kuya ku-1978 lapho eba uNobhala Jikelele Omnyama Omkhulu weMkhandlu Wamasonto aseNingizimu Afrika.

Ukubandakanyeka Emazweni Omhlaba

©Roger de la Harpe
Mayor Mike Tarr and Deputy Mayor Jabu Ngube with Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu Natal 2011.
U-Desmond Tutu ukhunjulwa kakhulu ngokubambisana kwakhe ekukhululweni eNingizimu Afrika, kodwa futhi wayebandakanyeka kakhulu ezindabeni zamazwe ngamazwe kubandakanya okulandelayo:

Ngo-1987 wanikezela inkulumo eyinhloko kwi-All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) eTogo lapho ekhuluma ngokuhlupheka kwabacindezelwe e-Afrika, ecela amasonto ukuba asize lapho angakwazi khona. Kamuva wakhetha umengameli we-AACC.

Ngo-1988 uTutu wakhuluma enkomfeni ye-Lambeth ecela ukuxazulula impikiswano eNyakatho Ireland.

Ngo-1989 wavakashela uZaire (okwamanje iDemocratic Republic of Congo) ukukhuthaza amasonto ukuba azihlukanise nohulumeni wobusa.

Ngo-1989 wabuye wakhuluma ngezingxabano zase-Palestine zase-Palestine eziqinisekisa ilungelo likahulumeni wakwa-Israyeli ekuqineni kwawo kanye nokuvikeleka ekuhlaselweni kwalabo abazophika ilungelo labo lokuba khona. Wathinta ukufana phakathi kwalesi simo kanye nohulumeni wobandlululo eNingizimu Afrika.

Uvakashele eLiberia ngo-1994 ngenhloso yokuhlela ukuqhuma komlilo esikhundleni se-AACC.

Ngo-1995 wathunyelwa eNigeria nguNelson Mandela ukuba acele ukukhululwa kweziboshwa zezombangazwe futhi kamuva lowo nyaka waya eRwanda ngemuva kokubulawa kobuhlanga nokubiza ubulungiswa.

Translated by Nsika Khoza