Ukuqeqesha Intsimi yoMdiliya

© Louise Brodie
Ukuqeqeshwa kwemithi yemidiliya kwenza imithi iphelele kwisiqu ngokukhula kunye nasemahlahleni ambalwa angezantsi kwakunye nokukhula okubaxekuleyo kwamahlahla. Injongo zokuqeqesha imithi yemidiliya kukuqinisekisa ukuba amasebe omdiliya made ngokulinganayo kwaye axinene aze angena ngokulinganayo kwicingo akhelwe lona. Iibhantshi zomdiliya ziye zikhule kulamasebe ekuhambeni kwethuba. Indlela egotywe ngayo lemithi iye ibeyiyo eyakha ukumila kwemithi.
Kubalulekile ukuba umthi womdiliya, ubenesiqu esime nqo. Izimo ezithe nqo ziqinisekisa ukuba amasebe ayalingana ngobude. Kukwathetha ukuba iibhantshi zemidiliya zilingana kakhulu kwaye zikumgangatho ongcono ukuba amasebe aqelelene kakuhle kwaye omelele ngokufanayo. Apho iibhantshi zingakhulu ngokulinganayo kwisebe, umbala usenokuchaphazeleka ize imidiliya yonakaliseke. Imidiliya esemgangathweni ophucukileyo zisenokungaveliswa.

Ukuqeqeshela Intsimi yoMdiliya kwi Trellis

Imithi yemidiliya emincinci kufanele isoloko ibotshelelwe kwiingcongolo, kwi khuni okanye ecingweni, ingabotshelelwa ngemicu ye plastiku ngabasebenzi abaqeqeshiweyo. Injongo yoku kukulungiselela isityalo esincinci ukuba sikhulele kwi trellis ezakuthi ixhonywe ethubeni. Injongo yokusiphula iintloko kukusiphula amasebe angafunekiyo, ingakumbi anamanzi nokujolisa amanzi ku masebe athembisa ngokuthwala isiqhamo.
Oku kunokubangela le mithana ukuba ikhule ngokukhawuleza kwaye kungachitheki amandla okukhulisa kumasebe ahleli engafunwayo. Emva kwexesha lokutyala (okanye emva kokukhula kwesivuno sonyaka wokuqala), imithi iyaphinda isikwe kushiyeke amahlahla amabini qha. Emva koko, elona hlahla libonakalisa Amandla lisetyenziswa njengesona siqu sizokusetyenziswa. Ukuthena (topping) kwenziwa kwisihlahla sesibini kwaye sigcinwa njengesongezelelweyo logama ezinye zisitshulwa zilahlwe.
Ukuthenwa kukususwa kwesebe elinobude obungama 15cm-25cm emthini. Lomthi ungowona usetyenziswayo kufanele ugcinwe ume nqo kangangoko ngokuthi wolulwe rhoqo. Imithi egoso yenza kubenzima ukuba itrekthara nemitshini yokuvuna izule kakuhle phakathi kwemiqolo. Ikwabangela namasebe emithi ukuba ingalingani ngobude macala omabini.
Uthi nje umthi ukhule ubengama 30 cm ugqithe icingo elibekiweyo, lomthi uyathenwa apha ekuqaleni nje ngaphezulu kancinci kwecingo. Oku kunqanda ukukhula komthi ubheke phezulu kubangela amasebe akhule esiqwini somthi ngendlela. Amasebe amabini esihahla, elinye kwicala ngalinye, ayekelwa ukukhuliswa njengemithi ezakuthwala amanye amasebe. Ihlahla elongezelweyo lishiyelwa xa kunokwenzeka elinye lonakaliseke.

Amacebo Okuqeqesha Lemithi

Ukuqeqesha intsimi yomdiliya sisigaba esibaluleke kakhulu kubomi bentsimi yomdiliya we wayini, kwaye kuxhomekeka ekuchumeni kwayo ku ‘Nyaka wokuqala’. Kujongwa ukuchuma ukuze kuhlelwe ukuba oku kuqeqeshwa kungaqaliswa nini. Nangona kunjalo, isigqibo kufanele sithathwe kwasekuqaleni ukuba loluphi uhlobo loqeqesho oluzakusetyenziswa.
Olu hlobo kufanele ku kuqhutyekwe nalo. Indlela omila ngayo umthi kwakunye nenani lwamasebe anokuthwala isiqhamo zilungiswa ngoku ze konke oku kuchaphazele imveliso ekuhambeni kwethuba. Kwesi sigaba yonke imithana efileyo kufuneka ilungiswe ngomthi we scion (umthi othathwe kwisityalo ukuze kweziwe i grafting kwingcambu) eyophulwe kwi graft union nefuna ukuphinde yenziwe nayo.
Qwalasela amasebe ongezelekileyo, Elinye elisesiqwini somthi nelinye ehlahleni. Ukusiphula (topping) kufuneka yenziwe ukuze lamasebe angakhuphisani namasebe azakuthwala isiqhamo. Ukuba amasebe anokuthwala isiqhamo athe onakala kufuneka asikwe kanye ngakweli litsha likhulileyo. Ngesi sigaba amasebe amatsha anokuthwala isiqhamo angokheka ngokusebenzisa isebe elisuka emanzini.
Nika ingqwalasela ekhethekileyo kumasebe abopheleleke kakuba na tswebekileyo yintambo apha ngasesiqwini somthi. Ngelixa imithi iselula, amahlahla abanzi kufuneka alungiswe. Amasebe anokuphithaniswe ukuqinisekiswa ukuba kuphuma ihlahla elinye elitswebhileyo. Kungcono kungabikho masebe athwala siqhamo emazantsi kwehlahla-Amasebe athwala isiqhamo abakho kuphela ukuba apha ngentla akukho nto.
Umthetho osetyenziswa jikelele ku qeqesho lwentsimi yomdiliya: Ukuba kukho ongakuqondiyo, kususe. Sebenzisa ukutyeba kwe pensile ngalo lonke ixesha ukulinganisela ukuba usike phi. Ukuba akukho masebe esihlahleni, sika isihlahla esomelele uze usisongele esebeni. Musa ukuthandabuza ukusika de kushiyeke amasebe amabini okanye ukuba awanelisekanga kukumila kwesiqu somthi.

Ukuqeqesha Isidiliya Sehlathi

Kwiingingqi ezomileyo, apho kungezu kunkcenkceshelwa khona, imithi yemidiliya ivamise ukutyalwa iqelelane. Xa kuqeqeshwa isidiliya sehlathi isiqu esifutshane esinamasebe athwala isiqhama ama 6-8 navuekileyo. Ibhola ekhatywayo kufanele ikwazi ukungena phakathi kwazo. Ngoko ke kukho imfuneko yokuba uzame ukusika onke amasebe akhula ejonge ngaphakathi ngethuba lokwakhiwa kwe sigqumathelo. Amasebe asikwe ngamabom ade afikelele esikhondweni ukuze kungabikho sebe lizakuphinda likhule. Ulawulo lwesityalo kufuneka luqwalaselwe kanobom ngokuphungula iibhantshi.

Ukuqeqesha Imithi yoMdiliya Ukulungisela iMechanical Pruning

Apho imithi yomdiliya we wayini utyalwe ukuze ube mechanically pruned kwilixa elizayo, ukukhula ukulungileyo kubalulekile ukuze umthi ukhule ubemde kunaleyo ithintelwe ngobuchule be trellis. Kubaluleke nangakumbi ukuba amahlahla abe kanti akhule ngokupheleleyo kunyaka wokuqala.
Kuxhomekeka kumgangatho womhlaba kwakunye nendidi yesityalo kunye nezithole zokutyala. Imicu yezagqumathel ayisetyenziswa xa kuzaku setyenziswa imechanical pruning. Zininzi indlela ezahlukeneyo zobuchule be trellis ezikhoyo. Enye yeyokuyeka isebe likhule ecaleni elinye kuphela kwakunye nokuyeka umthi ukhule uwogqithe le ikumqolo osecaleni kwayo.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana