Ukuqeqesha isivini Samagilebhisi

© Louise Brodie
Proper training onto the cordon wire has allowed these vineyards to develop two cordon arms. Topping and tipping allowed for the development of shoots on the top part of the cordon arms.
Ukuqeqesha isivini samagilebhisi kuvimbela ukwakheka kwesiqu namaxhumela (ingxenye yesivini eyakhiwe ukhuni) kanye nokukhula ngamandla kwamagatsha ahlumayo. Inhloso yokuqeqesha isivini ukuqinisekisa ukuthi amaxhumela made ngokulinganayo futhi makhulu kanti futhi ame endaweni kawaya wamaxhumela. Izigaxa eziqukatha amagilebhisi zikhula kuwolamaxhumela emva kwesikhathi. Ukuqeqesha isivini kube sekusho ukuthi isimo somumo waso uzobanjani.

Kubalulekile ukuthi isivini esisabalele sibe nesiqu esiqondile. Iziqu eziqondile ziqinisekisa ukuthi amaxhumela made ngokulinganayo. Kuphinde kusho ukuthi izigaxa eziqukatha amagilebhisi nazo ziyanda ngokwanele futhi lezi ezqukethe zingqangqane kahle nokuzenza ziqine. Lapho izigaxa zingakhekile kahle kumaxhumela umbala wamagilebhisi uyathinteleka futhi angalimaza namagilebhisi. Bese kungakwazeki ukuthi kutholakale amagilebhisi eqophelo nezinga eliphezulu.

Ukuqeqesha isivini Samagilebhisi Ngokuhelisa Ngothango

Isivini esisesincane kumele sinamatheliswe kumhlanga, ukhuni noma uwaya ngokusifasela ngezintambo noma ngokusaplasitiki ngabasebenzi abaqeqeshiwe. Inhloso yalokhu ukulungiselela lesisitshalo esincane ukukhula okuqhubekayo noma sesiheliselwe ngothango esizonamatheliswa kulo ngokuhamba kwesikhathi.

Inhloso yokumunca ikhanda laso ukuqeda ngamakhaba ahlumayo agadingeki, kakhulukazi amakhaba angcwele amanzi bese udlulisela ukukhula kwesivini kubuyele kumaxhumela ezingalo. Lokhu kungenza isivini sikhule ngamandla uphinde futhi ungamoshi ukukhula kwaso ngamandla ngokuthi kwakhelane amakhaba ahlumayo angadingeki.

Ngemuva kokutshala (noma emva konyaka ukhulisa), isivini siyasikwa umuva kusale amahlumela amabili kuphela. Emva kwaphela, lelokhaba elihlumaydo elinamandla kakhulu liyasetshenziswa ukwakha isiqu esikhulu. Ukwenza ngaphezulu kwenziwa kwikhaba elihlumayo lesibili bese ligcinwa kwikhaba elihlumayo elongeziwe okunyeke konke kuyayekwa. Okwangaphezulu ukususa kuka 15-25 cm kwikhaba elihlumayo. Isiqu esikhulu kumele sigcinwe siqondile ngayo yonke Indlela engenzeka ngokusidonsela phezulu njalonjalo. Iziqu ezigwegwile zenza kubenzima ukuhambisa ukuhlakula nokuvuna ngomshini kwimigqa ziphinde zenze namaxhumela ezingalo esiqu ukuthi angalingani ebudeni amacala womabili.

Uma nje ikhaba elihlumayo lokuqala selikhule laba ku 30cm ngaphezu kwexhumela lengalo ekuwaya, liye libe selisikwa phezulu kumsuka wokuqala, ngaphezudlwa kancane kwexhumela lengalo ekuwaya. Lokhu kuvimvimbela ukuba lixhume liyephezulu kuzobangela ukuba amahlumela egatsha ukuba azungenze indawo engaphezulu yekhaba lokuqala elihlumayo. Amamkhaba ahlumayo egatsha amabili, elilodwa emaceleni womabili ayayekwa ukuba akheke akhule njengexhumela lengalo. Elinye ikhaba elihlumayo elengiziwe nalo liyashiywa ukwenzela uma ngabe elinye lawo lilimala.

Amasu Okuqeqesha isivini Samagilebhisi

Ukuqeqesha umvini wamagilebhisi kuyisigaba esibalulekile kakhulu empilweni yonke yesivini futhi kakhulu kuvezwa umdlandla esikhula ngawo kunyaka owodwa. umdlandla wokukhula uyabonisa ukuthi isivini sikudinga nini ukuqeqeshwa okwesibili. Nokhoke, nquma kusaseduze Indlela ozoyisebenzisa yokuqeqesha isivini futhi ume kuyo. Ukwakheka komvini, kanye nesibalo sezigaxa eziqukathayo sisuke manje sesaziwa ukuze sizosusela ukukhiqiza kwesikhathi esizayo.

Ngalesisikhati yonke imivini esifile kumele ibekelwe kabusha nokhuni lwe scion (ukhuni oluthathwe kwimbewu ehlanganisiwe ukwakha olunye uhlobo lwesitshalo olusuke luzoxhunyelwa kwisiphunzi sempande) oselwaphukile lapho belexhume khona nalo kumele libekelwe kabusha.

Qikelela ukuthi ulawula kahle amanye amakhaba ahlumayo – elilodwa lesiqu nelinye lexhumela lengalo. Ukunquntula ngaphezulu kumele kwenziwe ukuze zingabangisani namanye amakhaba asahluma. Uma ikhaba elihlumayo lokuqala lilimala kumele linqunywe kuyofinyelela ngakwikhabe elihlumayo elengeziwe. Kulesiskhathi izigaxa eziqukathayo zingakhiwe ngokusebenzisa amakhaba ahlumayo asenamanzi.

Qikelela kumakhaba ahlumayo aboshwe ngendlela engalungile bese uthi ukuwancinza ngentanjana ezozungeza isiqu. Ngesikhathi umvini usemuncane, amagatsha asabalalayo ayadinga nawo ukuba abhekwe. Amaxhumela ezingalo ahlumayo nawo angaze alukelwe ahlanganiswe ukuqinisekise ukuthi kubaligatsha elilodwa elichumile. Ngokufisa bekungeke kubekhona izigaxa eziqukuthayo. Azikho izigaxa eziqukathayo ezakheka ezansi negatsha - izigaxa eziqukathayo zakheka kuphela ezansi nexhumela lengalo uma kufikwa kungekho ltho phezulu. Umyalo oyigolide ngokuqeqesha isivini: uma ungabaza sika umuva.

Njalo sebenzisa umyalo wokusebenzisa ipensela ukuthola ukuthi kumele usike kuphi umuva. Uma egekho amakhaba ahlumayo esixhumeni sengalo, sika umuva kwigatsha eliqinile bese ukugoqela lokhu kwixhumela lengalo. Ungangabazi ukusika umva usale namahlumela amabili noma uma unganelisekile ngesimo sokuma kwesiqu.

Ukuqeqesha kwesivini Esiseqeleni

Kwizindawo ezomile, lapho kungekho khona ukukwazi ukuchelela isivini, izivini zivamise ukutshalwa zingqaqgane, uma kuyisivini esiseqeleni kumelec ukuqeqesha isiqu esifushane esinezigaxa eziqukethe ezingu 6-8 ezivulekile phakathi kube iyona ndawo okuqondenwe nayo. Ibhola lezinyawo kumele likwazi ukungena endaweni evulekile. Ngakhoke, kuyadingakala ukuthi uzame ukususa wonke amakhaba ahlumayo akhulela phakathi ngesikhathi sokulawula ukwakheka kwaso soknke isitshalo upheinde ususe amakhaba ahlumayo akhula ebheke ezansi ikhanda lawo lisabalala likhula yonke indawo.

Amakhaba ahlumayo aqunywa ngamabomu ukuyofinyelela kwihlumela elingap handle ukuze kungabikhona ikhaba eilhlumayo legatsha elekhekayo ngaohakathi kwesitshalo. Ngesikhathi sokuqeqesha isivini esiseqeleni, ukulawula isilimo sonke kumele kwenziwe ngokuqikelela okuphezulu ngokuthi kususwe izigaxa zezithelo.

Ukuqeqesha isivini Samagilebhisi Ngokuthena Ngemishini

Lapho isivini sitshalwe ngendlela yokuthi sikwazi ukuthenwa ngomshini esikhathini esizayo, ukukhula okuhle kuyinto ebalulekile nedingakalayo kulesosivini ukuthi sikhule sidlule isiheliso sothango esibekelwe sona. Kubalulekel kakhulu futhi ukuthi ixhumela lengalo yaso libe selikhule ngokugcwele kunyaka owodwa.

Kakhulu konke lokhu kuchazwa amandla omhlabathi kanye nokuhlaniswa kohlobo lwembewu ehlanganisiwe ukwakha olunye uhlobo lwesitshalo i-cultivar kanye nesiphunzi sempande. Akusetshenziswa ukuthena ngomshini kwiindlela yakudala yokuxhuma yekhanophi yezinti. Kunezindlela ezahlukene ezisetshenziswayo zokuhelisa ngothango. Enye yazo ukuyekela ixhumela lengalo lakheke ngasecaleni elilodw kuphela nokuthi uvumele isivini ukuba sikhule ngale komvini.

Translated by Nokubonga Guliwe