Vuleteri bya Mudiriva

© Louise Brodie
Proper training onto the cordon wire has allowed these vineyards to develop two cordon arms. Topping and tipping allowed for the development of shoots on the top part of the cordon arms.
Vuleteri lebyi byisirhelela kukula ka nsinya wa madiriva laha tshindi na marhavi lawaya humaka xikanwe nakuhluka kaswirhabyani na matluka. Xikongomelo xa vuleteri lebyi iku tiyisisa leswaku ti cordon arms ta madiriva tilehe no lala kuringana leswaku yatakota kubohiwa kahle eka tinsimbi. Swichocho swa madiriva swihetelela swihuma kona kwala kati cordon arms endzhaku ka nkarhi. Vuleteri lebyi bya grapevine byi endla leswaku misinya leyi yiva na xivumbeko xokarhi. Swina nkoka swinene leswaku misinya leyi yiva na tshindi leri lolokeke.

Tshindi leri lolokeke ritiyisisa leswaku ti cordons taringana hinkwato. Leswi swinga vula leswaku swichocho swa madiriva swa ringana naswona iswa khwlithi yo antswa loko misinya leyitswalaka madiriva yibyariwe no tiya kuringana. Laha swichocho swinga kuleki kuringana eka ti cordon arms, muhlovo wunga khumbheka naswona madiriva yanga vaviseka. Khwalithi yakahle ya madiriva yingaka yinga fikeleleki.

Vuleteri bya trellis system eka madiriva

Misinya leyintsongo ya madiriva yifanele kutshama yiboheleriwile eka rimhandzi kumbe darata hitintambhu hivatirhi lavangana ntokoto. Xikongomelo xaleswi iku lulamisela ximilani kuva xikula eka nseketelo lowu tingata khomelerisiwa eka wona kukuma nseketelo. Xikongomelo xova kutshamela ku tsemeleriwa nhompfu yawona ikuva kuhungutiwa kuva kuva na na swirhabyani leswinga lavekeki, xikanwe notiyisisa leswaku nsinya lowu wukula kuya hileswi ti cordon arms tinga vekeleriwa swona. Leswi swiendla leswaku misinya ya madiriva kukula hixihatla nova kunga kuli naleswinga lavekiki. Endzhaku ka nkarhi wobyala (kumbe endzhaku ka lembe rosungula ro kula), nsinya wutsemiwa kusala marhavi mambirhi.

Endzhaku ka sweswo, rhavi leringa tiyela hirona ritirhisiwaka tani hi tshindi ra nsinya walowo. Lerin’wana rikurisiwa leswaku rita seketela nsinya tani hirhavi ra vumbirhi kasi lawa yanwani ya tsemiwa. Topping iku susiwa ka xiphemu xa rhavi xoringana 15 – 25 cm kusuka eka tshindi. Tshindi lerikulu rifanele kusiyiwa rikula rilolokile laha rifaneleke kukokiwa kukondza rilulama himinkarhi hinkwayo. Matshindi lawa yanga gombonyoka ya endla leswaku loko teretere na michini yotshovela yifamba famba yi hlupheka naswona tshindi rata endla leswaku ti cordons tinga ringanani.

Loko rhavi lerintsongo rikula kufika eka 30 cm kuhundza darata ya cordon, rivhela ritekiwa tani hi internode yosungula, ehenhla nyana ka darata ya cordon. Leswi swiyimisa kukula ka marhavi yaya ehenhla. Kuva na marhavi mambirhi, rin’we rikula tani hi cordon yamundzuku. Lerin’wana ratshikiwa rikula roxe kurindzela leswaku lerin’wani rivaviseka nsinya wusala wahari kona.

Switsundzuxo eka vuleteri bya madiriva

Vuleteri lebyi byina nkoka swinene ensinwini ya madiriva naswona swiya hi makuleloya nsinya eka lembe rosungula. Kukula ka wona hiswona swingatavula leswaku vuleteri byifanele byisungula rini. Kambe swilava leswaku munhu ateka xiboho eka maendlelo lawa angata watirhisa no yihlayisa. Xivumbeko xa nsinya na nhlayo leyingata tirhisiwa eka nhlohletelo wavuhumelerisi emakumu. Eka xiyenge lexi, misinya hinkwayo leyinga fa yifanele kususiwa. Tekela enhlokweni kulawula swirhabyani swinwani leswinga kulaka kusuka eka tshindi leringa eka cordon.

Topping yifanele ku endliwa leswaku kungavi na mphikizano eka swirhabyani leswikulaka. Loko swirhabyani leswi swivaviseka swifanele kutsemiwa. Kufanele kutekeriwa enhlokweni swirhabyani leswinga bohiwangiki kahle ngopfu ngopfu eka tshindi ra nsinya. Loko misinya leyi yahari yintsongo marhavi lawa yahangalakaka yafanele kululamisiwa. Cordon shoots tinga tirhisiwa ku anamisiwa ka marhavi. Akufanelanga kuva na marhavi lawa yanga pfuneki nchumu. Marhavi lawa yanga pfuneki nchumu yamila e hansi swinene ka tshindi ra nsinya.

Nawu lowukulu eka misinya ya madiriva iku letela: loko unga tshembi, tsema. Tshama urikarhi utirhisa swirhabyani leswinga bumbula kuringana na pencil kuva u langutisisa leswaku ufanele u tsema hihikwihi. Loko kurihava swirhabyana kuva swibohiwa, unga tsema leswintsongo, u petsa marhavi lawa yakotekaka. Unga chavi ku tsema swirhabyani kusala swimbirhi loko unga tsakisiwi hi xivumbeko xa tshindi ra nsinya lowu.

Vuleteri eka mirhi ya madiriva

Eka tindzhawu letinga oma laha ncheleto wa masimu wungariki kona, misinya yibyariwa yihangalaka swinene. Eka xiyimo xotani tshindi rifanele kuva na marhavi yoringana 6-8 laha kungavaka nakupfuleka leswi kunga xikongomelo. Bolo ya milenge yifanele kuringana eka xivandla lexisiyiweke. Leswi swina nkoka swinene kususa swirhabyani leswi kulelaka endzeni loko kuri kulawuriweni ka xivumbeko xa nsinya lowu xikan’we no susa swirhabyani leswi kulelaka ehansi swikokova Kunene. Swirhabyani swatsemiwa loko swimila endzeni ka tshindi hikuva swilaveka kuva swimilela ehandle ka tshindi. Hinkarhi wa vuleteri bya misinya leyi, kulawuriwa ka swimilani swifanele swiendliwa hivukheta kutiyisisa leswaku swirhabyani leswinga lavekeki swasusiwa.

Vuleteri byo hunguta mudiriva hi muchini

Laha misinya ya madiriva yinga byariwa kuva yihungutiwa hi muchini, kukula kahle swalaveka leswaku yikula kuhundza nseketelo wa yona. Switlhela swiva na nkoka swinene kuva cordon yi endliwa hi lembe rosungula endzhaku ko byariwa. Switala kutikomba kuya hi vuswikoti bya misava xikan’we na swirimiwa kumbe nhlangano waswona hinkwaswo. Swibyariwa swantolovelo aswitolovelangi kuhungutiwa hi muchini. Kuna tinxaka tohambana hambana ta nseketelo leti kumekaka. Yin’wana ikuva ku endliwa cordon hile ka tlhelo lerinwana kasi lerinwana mudiriva wunga kula wuya fikelela lowunga etlhelo ka wona.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni