uDesmond Tutu: Amagqabantshintshi ngo Bomi Bakhe

Wazalelwa eKlerksdorp

©Eric Miller
Desmond Tutu.
Ngomhla we 7 October 1931, uDesmond Mpilo Tutu wazalwa ngu Zachariah (itishala) kunye no Aletta (umsebenzi wase khitshini) eKlerksdorp kwiphondo lase Mntla Ntshona welizwe loMzantsi Afrika. Wayengomnye kubantwnana abane, kusapho olwalungena mali ingako.

Wathi uDesmond xa eneminyaka esibhozo ubudala, utata wakhe watshintshelwa kwisikolo sase Ventersdorp nalapho usapho lwakhe lwahamba icawe ebizwa nge African Methodist Episcopal Church. Ukusuka apho usapho lwakhe lwafudukela eRoodepoort eGauteng, nalapho usaho lwakhe lwahlala khona ngaphambi ngoyokuzinza eMunsieville, indawo ehlala abantu abamnyama e, eRhawutini.

Ngethuba ehlala eMunsieville, uDesmond wazenzela imali ngokuqokelela ze aphinde ahambise imphahla yokunxiba eyayihlanjwa ngumama wakhe. Wayekwathengisa nee orenji kunye namandongomane ukuze afumane ingeniso engathangani. Wayekwasebenza njengomphathi ngxowa yentonga zegalufa, kwindawo yokudlala igalufa ese Killarney. Wabayinxalenye ye scouts, nalapho wawongwa ngembasa ye Tenderfoot Second Class kwakunye ne Proficiency Badge ekuphekeni.

Isikolo Samabanga Aphakamileyo eSophiatown

uDesmond waqala izifundo zamabanga aphakamileyo eWestern High School kufuphi ne Sophiatown ngomnyaka ka 1945. Apha ke wagqwesa kwizifundo waze wakhula nothando lwebhola yombhoxo emva kokungena kwiqela lesikolo. Emva kweminyaka emibini waphathwa sisifo sephepha (TB) nalapho kwanyanzeleka ukuba ahlale esibhedlela kanganenyanga ezili 18. Ngethuba esesibhedlele, wahlobana no Father Trevor Huddleston nowathi wadlala indima enkulu ebomini bakhe, wayekwa phantsi kwalo mfundisi kwicawe yase Munsieville.

Lo ka Huddleston wayeyi Anglican Bishop eliNgesi, esebenza njengomfundisi eSophiatown. uDesmond wayechazekile yimbeko eyayiboniswa ngulomfundiso kunina ka Desmond, umntu owayebonwa esezantsi kuno Huddletson ngokwemo yentlalo. Akazange ayilibale indlela uHuddleston wayephatha ngayo wonke umntu ngesidima, oku kwamkhuthaza naye ekuhambeni kwethuba xa ejamelene nenzima zocalucalulo.

Ngenxa yesigulo sakhe, uDesmond wasilela esikolweni kodwa noxa kunjalo wavunyelwa ukuba abeyinxalenye labafundi abenza ibanga leshumi ngomnyaka ka 1950. Yayisoloko iliphupha lakhe ukuba ngugqirha, ngoko ke wayehlala angalali amaxa amaninzi, esebenzisa ikhandlela ukukhanyisa ukuze akwazi ukufundela iimviwo zakhe zebanga leshumi. Waliphumelela wazwe wamkelwa kwi kwisikolo sobugqirha iWitwatersrand Medical School, ukuze aqhubeleke nezifundo zakhe. Kodwa akazange akwazi ukufumana inkxaso mali ukuze afunde, wathatha isigqibo sokwenza izifundo zobutishala. Wabhalisa kwisikolo iBantu Normal College ukuze enze izifundo zakhe zobutishala.

Ukusebenza Njenge Tishala

Ngethuba uTutu esebenza njenge tishala, wahlangana no Nomalizo Lea Shenxane, nowayeyitishalakazi naye. Esi sibini satshata ngomnyaka ka 1955 saze sawongwa ngabantwana abane. uTutu wawushiya umsebenzi wakhe njenge tishala ngethuba kuwiswa umthetho we the Bantu Education Act. Wayengafuni ukubayinxalenye yokufundisa ngenkani imfundo ekumgangatho ophantsi ngenxa yebala labo. Waqhubeka nezifundo zakhe zakwalizwi/theology kwisikolo iSt Peter’s Theology College eJohannesburg. Wazibona iziphumo ezihle zoku, ngethuba enxitywa njengomfundisi wecawe yama Anglican.

Ukusukela ngomnyaka ka 1962 ukuya koka 1966 wasebenzela ukuba afumane isidanga sakhe seBachelors kunye ne Masters degree kwiTheology, ezifunda kwisikolo se King’s College London. Ngethuba uTutu ephesheya, wakhuthazwa yinkululeko yokuthetha oko ukucingayo kwakunye nendlela ekulula ngayo ukufumana ulwazi kunye nemfundo awayibona phaya. Wayebafunela lenkululeko inje abantu bakhe emva ekhaya eMzantsi Afrika.

Umntu Ohloniphekileyo

©Roger de la Harpe
Nobel Square, dedicated to South Africa's four Nobel Peace Prize laureates: Albert Luthuli, Desmond Tutu, FW DeKlerk and Nelson Mandela. V&A Waterfront, Cape Town.
Wathi uDesmond Tutu xa ebuyela eMzantsi Afrika ngomnyaka ka1967, wazimanya nabasebezi be Federal Theological Seminary in Alice nalapho wabayi chaplain/umfundisi kwi Dyunivesithi yase Fort Hare. Ngomnyaka ka 1975, uTutu wabekwa njenge Dean yase Dean of St Mary’s Cathedral, eJohannesburg, kanye emva koko wonyulwa njengo Bishop wase Lesotho. Umnyaka ka 1975, yayilixesha eliphithizelayo nelinzima kwilizwe loMzantsi Afrika. Kwaye kukho iziphehluphehlu zepolitiki kunye nabo balwisana nomthetho wocalu-calulo. Yayilixesha apho uDesmond Tutu wabekw kwisikhundla sokuba ngu Nobhala Jikelele we South African Council of Churches (SACC).

iSACC yayimele icawe ezinkulu zama Krestu eMzantsi Afrika, ngaphandle kwe Dutch Reformed Church kunye ne Catholic Church. iSACC yaba ngumbutho ophala phambili kubomi bezomoya nezepolitiki bama Krestu eMzantsi Afrika. Kwaye yabanika ithuba lokuba bavakalise iminqweno yabo. Ngeminyaka ye 1978 kunye neye 1985, uTutu waye phambili kwi qonga lesizwe nakwamanye amazwe ekulweni ukungalingani nocalu-calulo. uDesmond Tutu wawongwa nge Nobel Prize for Peace ngomnyaka ka 1984, ukubonisa inkxaso kwindima awayidlalayo ekubhangiseni umthetho wocalu-calulo.

Ngomnyaka ka 1985, uDesmond Tutu wonyulwa njengo Bishop yase Johannesburg. Ngeli xesha waqhubeka nokusebenzela utshintsho, wabe ephuhlisa nomanyano phakathi kwama Anglican ohlanga olumhlophe noluntsundu eMzantsi Afrika. Ngomnyaka ka 1986, wonyulwa ukuba abengu Archbishop wase Kapa, ze ngomnyaka ka 1987 wonyulwa njengo Mongamemeli we All African Conference of Churches.

Emva ko Calucalulo

©Eric Miller
Yathi usakubhangiswa umthetho wocalu-calulo ekugqibeleni ngomnyaka ka 1994, uTutu wamenywa ukuba abengusihlalo we Komishoni yeNyani noXolelwaniso (Truth and Reconciliation Commission) Wamenywa kwesi sikhundla ngu, Nelson Mandela, ngethemba lokuba uzakubuyisela uxolo kwesi sizwe.

uTutu sele suka kufumana amawonga apha eMzantsi Afrika nakumanye amazwe kuyo yonke leminyaka. La mawonga ayengumbulelo wenkxaxheba awathi wayidlala ekuzameni ukwenza ukuba abemi boMzantsi Afrika bahlale ngokulingana. Ekuvuzeni uthando lwakhe lweencwadi kunye nemfundo, uTutu sele ewongwe ngeezidanga ezinomsila angazifundelanga (honorary degrees) kwaye izikolo ezininzi kunye nenkxaso mali yokufunda sele zibizwe ngaye. Ngomnyaka ka 1987 waphumelela iPacem in Terris Award, imbasa ethiywe ngencwadi mbalelwano eyabhalwa ngu Pope John XXIII. Lencwadi imemelela abantu ukuba basebenzele ukuzisa uxolo phakathi kwezizwe.

Ngomnyaka ka 2008, uIllinois Governor Rod Blagojevich waphawulu usuka lwe 13 Meyi nje “Ngomhla ka Desmond Tutu” ze ngomnyaka ka 2017 uKumkanikazi Elizabeth II wase England wamtyumba ngenje Bailiff Grand Cross of the Venerable Order of St John.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana