Desmond Tutu: Imphilo Ngekuyibuka Ngekushesha

Watalwa e Klerksdorp

©Eric Miller
Ngenyana yeMphala natisikhombisa emnyakeni wa 1931, Desmond Tutu watalwa ngu Zachariah (thishela) kanye na Aletta (lobekasebenta emakhishini) eKlerksdorp Esifundzeni sase North West eNingizimu Afrika. Abengumunye walabane bantfwana emndenini lobowute kahle imali.

Watsi Desmond nasekaneminyaka lesiphohlongo budzala babe wakhe watfunyelwa esikolweni lesise Ventersdorp lapho khona umndeni wakhe wangenela Lisontfo le Methodist lase Afrika iEpiscopal. Kusuka lapho lomndeni wasukaa waya eRoodepoort eGoli lapho khona lomndeni wahlala ngaphambi uhlale ngalokuphelele eMunsieville, indzawo yebantfu labamyama eKrugersdorp, eGoli.

Batsi bahlala eMunisieville, Desmond watfola imali lengetulu ngekutsatsa nekubeka timphahla lemake wakhe besekatiwashile. Abephindze atsengise ema orintji kanye nemantongomane kwentela kutfola imali lencane aphindze asebente njengemfana lotfwala sikhwama setindvuku tegaluva eKillarney lapho kudlalelwa khona igaluva. Wangela eMavulandlelaa, lapho aklomeliswa khona iTenderfoot ngekuphuma nge Second Class kanye ne Mbheji ye Proficiency ekuphekeni.

Sikolwa Lesiphakeme eSophiatown

Desmond wacala lizinga lesikolwa lesiphakeme eWesterb High School dvute nase Sophiatown nga 1945. Lapha wahamba phambili ngetemfundvo waphindze wakhulisa lutsandvo lwakhe loludze ngemphilo ku rugby ngemuva kwekungenela licembu lesikolwa. Eminyakeni yesibili muva wacalwa yi tuberculosis (TB) kwadzinga kutsi amikiswe esibhedlela tinyanga letilishumi nesiphohlongo. Ngesikhatsi asesibhedlela, wabangumngani wa Father Trevor Huddleston lowaba ngumgcugcuteli wakhe lomkhulu emphilweni lefutsi angaphansi kwakhe abesebenta esontfweni lase Munsieville.

Huddleston abeLingisi angu Bishop we Anglican njengemfundisi eSophiatown. Desmond wachazeka ngekutfola kuhlonishwa ngulomake walomfundisi, umuntfu lobekatsatfwa ngekutsi uphansi kakhulu kuna Huddleston ngekuma kwemmango. Akazange akhohlwa indlela lebebaphatsangayo bantfu ngenhlonipho, kwamakha ekuhambeni kwemphilo yakhe ngesikhatsi abhekene nekuhlupheka kwe lubandlululo.

Ngenca yekugula kwakhe, Desmond wasala ngemuva esikolweni kepha nomakunjalo wangenela likilasi lema Matriculation la 1950. Bakukadze kuliphupho lakhe lekuba ngudokotela-umuntfu losita bantfu, ngako wahlala busuku lobuningi, asebentisa kukhanya kwemakhandlela kwentela kudadisha, entela kuhlolelwa imatric. Waphumelela waphindze wamukelwa eSikolweni seKwelapha eWitwatersrand lapho afundza wacedza. Kepha, akakhonanga kutfola indlela yekubhadalelwa esikolweni sekufundzela kwelapha, wabese ucolela kuba nguthishela esikhundleni wase ungenela eKolishi le Bantu kwentela kucedzela kufundzela kwakhe kuba ngu thishela.

Usebenta njenga Thishela

Watsi Tutu asasebenta njengathishela wahlanga na Nomalizo Leah Shenxane, lobekadze naye anguthishela. Lalababili bebashadile nga 1955 phindze banebantfwana labane kanyekanye.

Tutu wayekela ngekuba nguthishela ngesikhatsi Imfundvo ye Bantu ye Sento ifundziswa, yala kugcizelela umtsetfo lophocelela imfundvo kubantfu ngekuya ngelibala labo. Wachubeka ngekufundzela libhayibheli eSt Peter’s Theology College eGoli. Loku kwabhadala nga 1960 ngesikhatsi Tutu abekwa njengemfundisi we Anglican.

Kusuka nga 1962 kuya ku 1966 wasebenta ekutfoleni iBachelor kanye ne Masters ku Theology kusuka ku King’s College eLondon. Watsii Tutu asemaveni wakhutsatwa yinkhululeko yekutichaza kanjalo nekukhululeka ngelwati kanye nemfundvo lakubona lapho. Abefuna luhlobo lwakhe lwenkhululeko lwebantfu bakhe labamnyama eNingizimu Afrika.

Umuntfu Lohloniphekile

©Roger de la Harpe
Watsi Desmond Tutu nakabuya eNingizimu Afrika nga 1967, wangenela tisebenti te Federal Theology Seminary eAlice wase uba ngu chaplain ku Nyuvesi yase Fort Hare.

Ngemnyaka wa 1975, Tutu wabekwa njenga Dean wase St Mary’s Cathedral, eGoli, kwatsi ngekushesha ngemuva kwaloko acedvwa kukhetfwa njenga Bishop wase Lesotho. 1975, kwaba sikhatsi semsindvo eNingizimu Afrika ngetintfo letinkhulu te politiki kanye nekuvala kuvela kwetepolitiki. Kwakukadze kungesikhatsi lapho Desmond Tutu abekwa esikhundleni sekuba nguMabhalane we Khansela Yetemasontfo eNingizimu Afrika (South African Council of Churches-SACC).

Le SACC yamelela onkhe lamasontfo lamakhulu eNingizimu Afrika, kunalamanye eMasontfo laKhiwe kanye neLisontfo le Catholic. Le SACC yaba litiko leliphambili ngekwemoya kanye nemphilo yepolitiki yebaZalwane eNingizimu Afrika wabenta indlela yelivi yekubakhulisa. Ngesikhatsi sa 1978 na 1985, Tutu bekaphambili kusive kanye nesigaba sangaphesheya ekulweni nekungabikho kwemtsetfo welubandlululo. Desmond Tutu wanikwa iNobel Prize ye Peace nga 1984 njengemuntfu losekela indzima yekulwa ne lubandlululo.

Desmond Tutu nga 1985, wakhetfwa waba nguBishop wase Goli, ngesikhatsi sakhe wachubeka waphushela lushintjo, waphindze watfutfukisa kuhlangana emkhatsini wema Anglican lamhlophe nalaamnyama ase Ningizimu Afrika. Nga 1986, wakhetfwa kuba ngu Archbishop wase Kapa kwatsi nga 1987, Tutu wakhetfwa kuba ngu Mengameli wawo onkhe eMasontfo ase Afrika.

Kubekwa kwe Lubandlululo

©Eric Miller
Ngesikhatsi kumiswa lubandlululo nga 1994, Tutu wabitwa kuyohola Liciniso ne Kubuyisana Kwe Khomishini, ngu Nelson Mandela, ngekwetsemba ekugcineni kuthula esiveni.

Tutu wetfulwa endzaweni kanye nangaphandle, eminyakeni lehambile, ngekufaka kwakhe sandal ekutameni kwakha iNingizimu Afrika live lelilinganako. Ngekwatiwa ngelutsandvo lwakhe lwe lliterature kanye nemfundvo, Tutu waklomeliswa ngemadegree lamaningi, kwatsi tikolwa letiningi kanye netindlela tekubhadalelwa tabitwa ngeligama lakhe.

Nga 1987 wawina uMklomelo we Pacem eTerris, umklomelo lowabitwa ngemuva kwencwadzi ya Pope John XXIII leyayibita bonkhe bantfu kutsi bagcine kuthula etiveni tabo.

Nga 2008, Governor wase Illinois Rod Blagojevich wabeka mhlaka 13 May kutsi "yi Desmond Tutu Day" kwatsi nga 2017 Queen Elizabeth II wase Ngilandi wamubeka njenga Bailiff Grand Cross we Venerable Order wase St John.

Translated by Phindile Malotana