U-Desmond Tutu: Impilo Yakhe

Wazalelwa eKlerksdorp

©Eric Miller
Desmond Tutu.
Ngo-Okthoba 1931, u-Desmond Mpilo Tutu wazalelwa uZachariah (uthisha) no-Aletta (isisebenzi sasekhaya) eKlerksdorp eNyakatho Ntshonalanga yeNingizimu Afrika. Wayengomunye wezingane ezine emndenini ongenayo imali eningi.

Lapho uDesmond eneminyaka eyisishiyagalombili ubudala ubaba wakhe wathunyelwa esikoleni eVesersdorp lapho umndeni wakhe waya khona e-African Methodist Episcopal Church. Ukusuka lapho umndeni wathuthela eRoodepoort eGauteng lapho umndeni wawuhlala khona ngaphambi kokuhlala eMunsieville, indawo yokuhlala emnyama eKrugersdorp, eGauteng.

Ngesikhathi ehlala eMunsieville, u-Desmond wathola imali eyengeziwe ngokuqoqa nokuhambisa izingubo umama wakhe ayegeze. Wabuye wathengisa ama-oranges nama-peanuts ngenzuzo encane futhi wasebenza njenge-caddy esikoleni seGollarney igalofu. Wajoyina amaScouts, lapho anikezwa khona iTenderfoot Second Class kanye noBucheling Badge ekuphekeni.

Isikole samabanga aphezulu eSophiatown

U-Desmond waqala esikoleni esiphakeme esikoleni esiphakeme saseWestern High ngaseSophiatown ngo-1945. Lapha ukhululekile kubafundi futhi wahlakulela uthando lwakhe lomdlali wesikhathi eside ngemuva kokujoyina iqembu lesikole. Eminyakeni emibili kamuva wathola isifo sofuba (TB) futhi kwadingeka afike esibhedlela izinyanga ezingu-18. Ngenkathi ehlala esibhedlela, waba nesithandwa nobaba uTrevor Huddleston owaba ngumthelela omkhulu empilweni yakhe futhi engaphansi kwakhe esontweni laseMunsieville.

U-Huddleston wayengumBhishobhi wase-Anglican waseNgilandi osebenza njengompristi eSophiatown. U-Desmond wamangaliswa inhlonipho umpristi wabonisa unina kaDesmond, umuntu owayebhekwa njengomuntu ophansi kakhulu kune-Huddleston ngokuma komphakathi. Akazange akhohlwe indlela u-Huddleston aphatha ngayo wonke umuntu ngesithunzi, wamkhumbuza kamuva ekuphileni lapho ebhekene nokulwa nombandlululo.

Ngenxa yokugula kwakhe, u-Desmond wawa ngemuva esikoleni kodwa wavunyelwa ukuba ajoyine isigaba samatriki ka-1950. Kwakuhlale ephupha ukuba abe udokotela, ngakho wahlala ephuzile ebusuku kakhulu, esebenzisa ukukhanya kwekhandlela ukuze afunde, ngoba izibalo zakhe zamatriki. Wadlula futhi wamukelwa eWitwatersrand Medical School ukuqhubeka nokufunda. Kodwa, engakwazi ukuthola imali yesikole sezokwelapha, wanquma ukuba uthisha esikhundleni sakhe futhi wabhalisa kwi-Bantu Normal College ukuze aqedele idiploma yomfundisi wakhe.

Ukusebenza njengomfundisi

Ngesikhathi uTutu esebenza njengomfundisi wahlangana noNomalizo Leah Shenxane, omunye uthisha. Laba bobabili babeshadile ngo-1955 futhi banezingane ezine ndawonye.

UTutu uzimisele ukufundisa lapho kuqaliswa uMthetho weBantu wezeMfundo, ukwenqaba ukuvumela ukungabi nabulungisa okuphoqelela imfundo engaphansi kwabantu ngokusekelwe emncintiswaneni. Uqhubekele phambili ukuqhubela phambili izifundo zakhe zemfundiso yenkolo eSt Peter's Theology College eGoli. Lokhu kwakhokhwa ngo-1960 lapho uTutu emiswa njengompristi wase-Anglican.

Kusukela ngo-1962 kuya ku-1966 wasebenza ekwenzeni ama Bachelors akhe noMasters degree kwiTheology evela eNkosini's College London. Ngesikhathi uTutu ehamba phesheya waphefumulelwa inkululeko yokukhuluma kanye nokufinyelela okulula kolwazi nemfundo owafakaza lapho. Wafuna lolu hlobo lwenkululeko kubantu bakubo emuva eNingizimu Afrika.

Umfanekiso ohlonishwa kahle

©Roger de la Harpe
Nobel Square, dedicated to South Africa's four Nobel Peace Prize laureates: Albert Luthuli, Desmond Tutu, FW DeKlerk and Nelson Mandela. V&A Waterfront, Cape Town.
Lapho uDavid Desmond Tutu ebuyela eNingizimu Afrika ngo-1967, wajoyina abasebenzi be-Federal Theological Seminary e-Alice futhi waba umfundisi we-University of Fort Hare.

Ngo-1975, uTutu wamiswa uMfundisi weCathedral Cathedral, eGoli, futhi ngemva nje kokukhethwa njengoMbhishobhi waseLesotho. 1975, kwaba yisikhathi esinzima eNingizimu Afrika ngezingxabano ezinkulu zezombusazwe nokuphikiswa kobandlululo. Ngaleso sikhathi uDesmond Tutu wamiswa esikhundleni seNobhala Jikelele weMkhandlu Wamasonto aseNingizimu Afrika (SACC).

I-SACC imele wonke amasonto amakhulu amaKristu eNingizimu Afrika, ngaphandle kweSonto LaseDutch Reformed neSonto LamaKatolika. I-SACC yaba isikhungo esihola phambili empilweni engokomoya kanye nezombangazwe yamaKristu eNingizimu Afrika futhi yabanikeza izwi lesipulatifomu izifiso zabo. Ngonyaka ka-1978 no-1985, uTutu wayehamba phambili esiteji sikazwelonke nasemazweni omhlaba ekulwa nokungabi nabulungisa okwenziwe ubandlululo. U-Desmond Tutu wanikezwa iNobel Prize for Peace ngo-1984 njengesenzo sokusekela indima ayidlala ekuqedeni ubandlululo.

U-Desmond Tutu ngo-1985, wakhethwa njengoMbhishobhi waseGoli, ngalesi sikhathi waqhubeka nokuphoqelela ushintsho, futhi wakhuthaza ubunye phakathi kwama-Anglican abamnyama nabamhlophe baseNingizimu Afrika. Ngo-1986, wakhethwa ukuba abe nguMbhishobhi Omkhulu waseKapa kanti ngo-1987, uTutu wakhethwa njengoMongameli we-All Conference of the Church of Churches.

Ngamuva kwesikhathi sobandlululo

©Eric Miller
Ngenkathi ubandlululo luqedwa ngo-1994, uTutu wamenywa ukuba abeke iKhomishini yeQiniso nokubuyisana, nguNelson Mandela, ngethemba lokubuyisela ukuthula esizweni.

I-Tutu iye yahlonishwa kokubili nakwamanye amazwe, eminyakeni edlule, ngenhloso yakhe yokuzama ukwenza iNingizimu Afrika ibe ngumphakathi ofanayo. Ngokuqaphela uthando lwakhe lwezincwadi kanye nemfundo, uTutu unikezwe iziqu eziningi zezinhlonipho, futhi izikole eziningi kanye nezifundiswa zibizwa ngegama lakhe. Ngo-1987 wanqoba i-Pacem e-Terris Award, umklomelo obizwa ngokuthi incwadi ngemuva kukaPapa John XXIII ocela abantu ukuba bathole ukuthula phakathi kwezizwe.

Ngo-2008, umbusi wase-Illinois u-Rod Blagojevich umemezele ngo-13 Meyi "uDesmond Tutu Day" futhi ngo-2017 iNdlovukazi u-Elizabeth II yaseNgilandi yammisa njengoMkhandlu Omkhulu WaseBraith of the Order Venerable of St John.

Translated by Nsika Khoza